Here you will find information on tandoor clay ovens and a delightful tandoori chicken recipe, which I first made in one of my cooking classes in the early 1980’s.
Tandoor Oven Described
If made authentically in India, this chicken dish (which originated in the Punjabi region of the Indian subcontinent) is cooked in the bell-shaped tandoor clay oven; this oven is also used to make the Indian flatbread naan. This is a cylindrical clay oven, which sets in the earth and is fired with wood or charcoal; it may also rest above the ground. 1
Where the Tandoor Oven Is Used and Its Origins
The tandoor oven is used for cooking in the following Asian regions: Southern Asia (including India), Central Asia (including some former Soviet republics), and Western Asia (thirteen of the twenty countries-fully or partly located here-are of the Arab world) and the South Caucasus. 2
In India and Pakistan, tandoori cooking became popular, when the Punjabis (from the northern part of the Indian subcontinent) embraced their traditional tandoori cooking on a regional level; this can be seen, after the 1947 partition, when Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus resettled in such places as Delhi. Therefore, Indians and Pakistanis traditionally associate the tandoor with the Punjabis. 3
In Azerbaijan, the tandoor oven is called a tandir, while in Armenia, it is known as a tonir, which is underground here. 4
How a Tandoor Oven Works
Burning grasses, charcoal, or wood produces the heat in the traditional tandoor oven. Smaller electric tandoors, however, are found in some homes, especially in America; larger electrical tandoors are used commercially (see https://www.puritandoors.com/ for purchasing).
These fires within the traditional, cylindrical ovens produce a combination of live fire cooking, radiant heat cooking and hot-air, convection cooking, as well as smoking-caused by the fat dripping on the charcoal or wood. The temperatures soar to 900 degrees F (480 degrees C); these temperatures are maintained, by the fires left burning for long periods of time. 5
The tandoor design makes the transition between a makeshift earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven. Earth ovens were communal long ago, being pits dug in the ground with smoldering wood, cooking all the family’s meals within the community. These earth ovens were eventually lifted out of the ground, and with time, they became masonry-brick or stone-ovens. Initially in Asia, they, however, transitioned into the tandoor ovens, which being made smaller were used by individual families. In this way, the tandoor was created, using grasses and wood to generate the heat to cook meat and vegetables within, while flatbreads were slapped directly on the hot clay walls. 6
The heat within a tandoor is generated, by a convection current created inside, as cold air is taken in through a hole at the bottom of the tandoor. As the cold air hits the fire, it warms up, and becomes less dense, circulating up inside the cylinder. The air previously at the top has cooled down some, and it falls back to the fire. This convection heat is energy transferred through currents, or in this case air currents. In turn, a process known as radiation takes place, with the clay of the oven slowly beginning to absorb and emit some of this ambient, circulating, insulated heat. 7
Etymology of the Word Tandoor
According to Wikipedia, the English tandoor comes from Hindi/Urdu tandur, which in turn comes from Persian tanur; all these names mean (clay) oven. The Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary states that this Persian word was derived from the Akkadian word tinuru, and that this word tinuru consists of the parts tin, or mud, and nuro/nura, meaning fire. 8
Making Your Own Tandoori Oven
There are numerous versions for making your own tandoor oven found on YouTube. Primitive Life Reborn has a great video on how to make a primitive, mud tandoor-see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSCNQ0bGolY A less traditional, but easier design, is given at https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Tandoor-(Clay)-Oven
Background of My Recipe
My original 1980’s receipt included red food coloring, as the spicy hot tandoori chicken in Southern, Central, and Western Asia was reddish in color, due to the abundant spices in it (cayenne pepper, red chili powder, etc.). Along with the optional food coloring, my milder recipe from the early eighties, included instructions for the barbecuing, broiling, or baking of the poultry, as tandoors were not in abundance in the U.S. back then, as they are today.
In America, “Indian summer” meals are highlighted with barbecues; you may, however, have this prized electric appliance in your home, or even a home-made tandoori oven, thus providing the option of making this receipt the traditional way. If not, try barbequing, broiling, or in a pinch, baking it-all these instructions are below.
A few of the restrictions brought on by Covid-19 may seem to have settled some. Back in the spring, life appeared to be drastically changed, but now things may no longer appear to be ‘hot as an oven’-and tandoori ovens get up to 900 degrees F (480 degrees C).
A semblance of order seems to have been restored, since the early March outbreak of this virus and all its complications. Nevertheless, we take nothing for granted, but remain alert. The word of God instructs us:
“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour: Whom resist steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.” 1 Peter 5: 8, 9. (King James Bible)
To be sober is to be clear-headed, or alert, while vigilance requires circumspection, or being cautious about what we say or do.
We know that our thoughts form the basis of our spoken words and actions; thus, it is imperative that we tend to our thought life carefully. If we do not, we can unknowingly give Satan access to come into our lives with his destructive ways; this can take place as we let our thoughts play out in words and actions that inadvertently lead to damage.
Through his mercy and grace, our Redeemer Jesus aids us in this, when we ask him to; therefore, we do not mistakenly commit sins of ignorance, or worse yet those of commission, which have consequences of destruction in the natural.
In this way, hell’s heat cannot touch us!
Enjoy my hot-from-the-oven tandoori chicken recipe below.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandoor and https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/tandoori_chicken/
Tandoori Chicken Yields: 6 servings. Active prep time: 1 hr/ Cooking time: 30 min/ Inactive prep time for marinating: 9 1/2 hr.
6 thigh/leg parts (Our local Fred Meyer sells seasoned thigh/leg pieces at the meat counter, but you will want to ask for unseasoned ones, for $1.29/lb. They also carry a pre-packaged Heritage Brand, with 4-5 pieces in a package for $1.09/lb.)
2 tbsp lemon juice, divided
1 1/2 tsp salt, divided
8 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped fine
2 tbsp grated fresh ginger
1 tsp ground cardamom, or 1 1/2 tsp seeds
1/2 tsp garam masala
1/3 tsp ground cumin, or 1/2 tsp seeds
1 tsp cayenne pepper
1 tsp red food coloring, optional
2 c plain, whole milk yogurt (I prefer Sierra Nevada Grass-fed, Whole Milk Yogurt, as it is thick, rich, and most healthy; another option is plain Greek yogurt.)
If frozen, thaw chicken two days ahead in the refrigerator.
- Nine and a half hours before serving, or better yet a day ahead, remove skin from chicken and cut five to six deep gashes in each piece, cutting all the way through the meat (see photo above).
- In a small bowl, mix 1 1/2 tbsp of lemon juice and 1 tsp salt. Rub each piece with this mixture and place in a pan, covering loosely with plastic wrap. Refrigerate for one and a half hours.
With a mortar and pestle, food processor or blender, pulverize: garlic, ginger, cardamom, garam masala, cumin, cayenne pepper, and remaining 1/2 tbsp lemon juice and 1/2 tsp salt.
- Mix yogurt, spices, and optional food coloring. Spoon sauce over the front and back sides of each piece of chicken, covering well; lay in a pan and spoon more sauce on top of these thigh/legs. Cover loosely with plastic wrap and marinate in refrigerator for eight hours-or overnight. See above photo.
Cook over charcoal, in tandoori oven or BBQ. May also cook under a broiler for 25-35 minutes, or until done. A final option is to bake this in 400-degree oven for 30-45 minutes, or until there are no red juices present, when a knife is inserted in center. See photo.