Cotes de Porc Sauce Nenette

cotes de porc sauce nenette

Here is a fantastic dish inspired by Julia Child; below you will access its easy recipe and the varying qualities of different cuts of pork.  My next entry will be braised cabbage, which Child recommends as a good accompaniment to  pork; in this second entry, I will relate my experience of inviting this greatest of American chefs Julia Child to dinner.

 

 

Mastering the Art of French Cooking

This well-known recipe is from Mastering of the Art of French Cooking, Vol. 1, which Child published in 1961, in collaboration with Louisette Bertholle and Simone Beck.  Child and Beck alone printed the second volume in 1970.

Pork, a Poorer Man’s Food in the Mid-Twentieth Century

In my 1964 edition of Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker introduce their section on pork, with the following:

“Someone has observed that a pig resembles a saint in that he is more honored after death than during his lifetime.  Speaking further of his social standing, we have noticed that when smoked, he is allowed to appear at quite fashionable functions; but that only one’s best friends will confess to anything more than a bowing acquaintance with pork and sauerkraut or pigs’ feet.”  1

Popular Loin Cuts and their Corresponding French Names

Mastering the Art of French Cooking, however, has numerous very delectable recipes for pork, one of which is my version of cotes de porc sauce nenette given here.  A list is given in this cook book, of the different popular cuts of this meat, along with their corresponding French names.

First the loin is described.  (Child’s list is for roasting and braising the whole loin, though chops are taken from these cuts.)  Its center cut, or milieu de filet, is lean meat and corresponds to the porterhouse or t-bone steak section of beef, with both loin and tenderloin (Trader Joe’s sells boneless, French-cut, center-cut, loin chops for $6.49/lb-expensive, but worth it!).  The rib cut-carre-is also lean meat and corresponds to the rib section of beef, with loin, but no tenderloin.  The loin end-pointe de filet-is the same as the rump of beef, a combination of fat and lean, while the shoulder or blade end-echine-is also a combination of fat and lean.  This latter is a favorite roasting cut in France; it is the shoulder-chop end of the loin.  2

Three Other Popular Pork Cuts

Mastering the Art of French Cooking lists three other cuts: the first being shoulder butt or Boston butt-palette-another combination of fat and leanIt states that in the U.S., we also have a picnic shoulder or shoulder arm, of which there is no French equivalent; this is lean meat.  Finally, there is the fresh ham-jambon frais-which is lean meat that can be bought whole, or in part, and boned, or not.  3

Various Bacons Taken from Two Primal Cuts of Pork

Canadian style bacon also comes from the loin section of the pig, for it is thinly sliced, smoked pork loin.  Regular bacon, however, comes from its flank, which is below the loin; salt pork also comes from the flank.  4

Joy of Cooking shows a total of 34 different cuts used of pork, in its chart.  Among them are these bacons, while some others include the following cuts: loin chop, rib chop, Frenched rib chop, butterfly chop, blade loin roast, and crown roast-all of these come from the loin.  5

Primal Cuts Defined, With Their Numerous Specific Cuts

Wikipedia states that there are at least 25 Iberian pork cuts, somewhat less than those identified by Joy of Cooking.   The information online expresses that the terminology and extent of each cut-in these more than 25 cuts-varies from country to country.  It goes on to say there are between four and six primal cuts-the large parts in which the pig is first divided, which are the principal commercial cuts, of which these 25 or more specific, or retail, cuts are taken.  Wikipedia says these four to six primal cuts are: the shoulder (blade and picnic), the loin, the belly (spareribs and side) and the leg (also known as the ham).  6

Joy of Cooking lists twelve commercial cuts, including the above six, as well as the fat back, hock, snout, jowl, fore foot, and hind foot.  These last six commercial cuts have popular use, varying from region to region, here and throughout the world.  7

Applied Lesson

Variety is the spice of life: cultures emphasize unique qualities of the whole person, or in this case the pig, in different ways.  What is required for the kitchen in France varies-greatly at times-from that needed here in America, or elsewhere.  Thus, we must carefully cover all bases, letting nothing slip through in our communication with foreigners, concerning our instructions on nutrition.

Popular foods here (such as the picnic ham) are not known at all in some European countries.  They have no reference point for such foods.  When talking about the ailments of our own region, we must slow down and be sure all is being understood clearly.  For as the saying goes, we may be speaking “Greek” to them.

Likewise, this rule applies to our instructions outside the kitchen, given to those whose hearts are seeking.  We move meekly, as we share our wisdom, which can set the captives free.  The old adage, a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down, must be administered mildly, quietly, in small amounts to those around us (especially, those whose “dietary needs” limit what they can take in, at any given time).

In this way, we move wisely across nations and peoples, with not only our recipes, but also the heartbeat of our lives, the good news of the gospel.

Enjoy this superb dish, which is easy to make.  How it wows!  Also, see cotes de porc braisses a la moutarde, from Time-Life Foods of the World, at A 1960’s French Dinner.

References:

  1. Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker (New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.), p. 406.
  2. Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck, The Mastery of the Art of French Cooking, 2 volumes (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1961, reprinted eighteen times, twentieth printing, May 1971), Vol. 1, p. 378.
  3. Ibid., pp. 378, 379.
  4. Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker, Joy of Cooking (New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1931, reprinted ten times, twelfth printing, 1964), pp. 396, 397.
  5. Ibid.
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cut_of_pork
  7. Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rombauer Becker, Joy of Cooking (New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1931, reprinted ten times, twelfth printing, 1964), p. 397.

finished product

Cotes de Porc Sauce Nenette  Yields: 2 servings.  Active prep time: 1 hr/  marinating time: 3-12 hr.  Note: the following is inspired by Julia Child’s recipe in The Mastery of the Art of French Cooking, pp. 376, 386, 387; it includes Child’s marinade seche, which greatly enhances the recipe.

 

 

 

Needed: a covered pan suitable for both stove top and oven; for a single recipe, an 8”, 3-quart, fireproof casserole works well; if doubling recipe, use a 10”-12” Dutch oven.

Marinade Seche  (This is enough for up to 2 lbs of meat; if you are making more than 2 lbs, increase the recipe accordingly.)

2 tsp salt  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; an inexpensive, fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco for $4.95 for 5 lbs.)

1/4 tsp freshly ground pepper

1/2 tsp ground sage or thyme

1/4 tsp ground bay leaf

Two pinches allspice

Optional: 1 clove mashed garlic

Chops

1-1 1/3 lb boneless, pork loin chops, or 2 chops, 1 1/4” thick (Note: boneless, French-cut, center-cut, pork loin chops are available at Trader Joe’s, which are rather expensive-$6.49/lb, but worth it!)

1 tbsp oil  (Avocado or coconut oil is important for health, as olive oil is carcinogenic, when heated to high temperatures.)

1 tbsp butter

Optional: 1 clove garlic, halved

Sauce Nenette

1 c heavy whipping cream  (Note: increase the sauce recipe by one and a half, for four chops; for six chops, double the sauce recipe.)

1/8 tsp salt

Pinch of pepper

2 tsp dry mustard  (Available in bulk at most grocery stores.)

4 tsp tomato paste

4 tsp chopped fresh basil  (If you have fresh basil that you are not able to use right away, you may freeze the whole leaves in water, in a small container; be sure to thaw the night before cooking.  Large, fresh, basil plants are often available at Trader’s for $3.99; see photo below.)

  1. basil plant from Trader’s

    If using frozen basil, thaw a day ahead, in the refrigerator.

  2. In a small bowl, mix the first six ingredients; rub pork loins with this marinade seche. Place loins in a glass, or stainless steel, dish.  Cover and marinate for at least 3 hours, better overnight, turning at least 2-3 times during marinating period.  This brings out flavor and tenderizes the meat.  May not need to use all the marinade.  See photo below.
  3. marinade seche

    Preheat oven to 325 degrees.

  4. Before cooking the chops, scrape off the salt and herbs; then, dry the meat thoroughly with paper towels (drying aids in the browning process); see photo below.
  5. scraping salt marinade off chops

    Heat pan over med-med/high heat; add 1 tbsp oil for 2 chops; place pork chops in hot oil (if doubling the recipe, be sure not to crowd chops, but cook 2 or 3 at a time, or they will steam rather than brown).

  6. Cook 3-4 minutes per side, or until nicely browned (see photo below).
  7. Prepare basil by chopping.  If using frozen basil, drain it well, chop small, and measure 2 tsp of the wet leaves, as opposed to 4 tsp of fresh leaves, for a single recipe.
  8. browned loin chops

    Remove chops to a plate, pour out fat in pan; then, add butter and optional garlic-listed under Chops. Return the meat and all its juices to hot pan; let cook until you hear the loin chops sizzle.

  9. Cover the pan and place in the bottom third of oven, for 25-30 minutes, or until there is no color in chops, when center is cut with a knife.  Be sure to turn and baste the chops occasionally.
  10. Meanwhile in a small saucepan, bring cream, salt, and pepper, listed above under Sauce Nenette, to a simmer over med/low heat; then, cook for 8-10 minutes, or until it is reduced by a third, or a total of 2/3 cups. Do not cover pan.
  11. Blend the mustard and tomato paste together in a small bowl; beat hot cream into this mixture with a wire whisk; set aside.
  12. When chops are done, remove to a plate, and degrease the meat juices, by using a long-handled spoon (draw spoon over the surface, to dip up a thin layer of fat; it helps to tip pan, to more easily reach fat.)
  13. Pour cream mixture over juices in pan and simmer for 3-4 minutes, uncovered, on top of stove. Adjust seasoning (know meat will be salty from marinade), stir in chopped basil, return chops, basting them with sauce.  See photo at top of recipe.
  14. For low-carb, gluten-free needs, I like to serve this with quinoa (see recipe at Quinoa Dishes). Childs suggests braised cabbage for a vegetable; my version of this will be my next entry, or see my 1880’s Minced Cabbage, for another ideal accompaniment to this dish.

West African Bobotie (Lamb or Beef Baked in Curry-Custard)

bobotie

Discover the health benefits of turmeric, while delighting in this national West African dish bobotie-made with turmeric.

How Turmeric Grows

Turmeric comes from a herbaceous tropical plant in the ginger family, Curcuma longa.  Our herb is its dried underground stem, or rhizome-the horizontal, underground stem of this ginger “root”.  This special underground stem structure has been developed for nonsexual reproduction.  In other words, a rhizome can “clone” itself by forming a storage organ that can produce its own roots and stem and become an independent-but genetically identical-plant; this is seen in sunchokes and all ginger “roots” in the ginger family, of which turmeric is one.  In potatoes and yams, these swollen underground stem tips are called tubers.  1

Turmeric’s Preservation Process

Turmeric rhizomes are steamed or boiled in slightly alkaline water, in the making of this spice; this sets the color and precooks the abundant starch; then, these stems are sun-dried.  Though turmeric is usually sold pre-ground, some ethnic and whole foods markets may carry it fresh or as dried rhizomes.  2

Whole Turmeric Likely Provides Different Benefits

This whole turmeric, as found in certain health and ethnic grocers, may provide different health benefits.  Studies of its pre-ground form focus mostly on its constituent curcumin, which is just one of its curcuminoids (the other two being bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethyoxycurcumin).  Turmeric also contains volatile oils, or aromatic terpines, such as tumerone, athlantone, and zingiberene.  All these different substances are associated with unique health benefits.  3

The Flavor Components of Turmeric

Turmeric’s aromatic terpenes of turmerone and zingiberene give this herb a woody, dry earth aroma; it also has a slight bitterness and pungency.  (For detailed information on flavor components found in herbs, see Sage Turkey Delight.  4

The Origins of Turmeric

Turmeric appears to have been domesticated long ago in India, probably for its leading characteristic of deep yellow pigment; the word curcuma comes from the Sanskrit for “yellow”.  (For another reference of words for food, taken from Sanskrit, see Laban Bil Bayd.)  In the U.S., turmeric has been primarily used to color mustards and provide their nonpungent filler; in addition, it also has been used in prepared curry powders, where it makes up 25-50% by weight of these blends.  5

Its Present Popularity Is Based on Its Health Benefits

In whfoods.org, George Mateljan observes that despite the past wide use of turmeric in cooking over several thousand years, now researchers are continually surprised by its wide-ranging health benefits, as a supplement.  He lists some of these as: anti-inflammatory benefits, decreased cancer risk, support of detoxification, improved cognitive function, blood sugar balance, and improved kidney function.  He goes on to claim that it may also lessen the degree of severity in certain forms of arthritis, as well as certain digestive disorders.  6

Some of its strengths as a spice are: turmeric helps retain beta-carotene in certain foods such as carrots and pumpkin, in the cooking process.  Studies also show that turmeric may greatly help prevent the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which have been found to be so damaging, in the grilling of meat.  7

Curcumin Is Best Taken as a Supplement

Today, health experts focus mostly on curcumin, one of the curcuminoids found in turmeric.  It is best to take curcumin as a supplement, rather than to try to absorb its benefits through cooking with it in spice-form.  Consuming curcumin with black pepper enhances its absorption by 2000%, because of the piperine in pepper.  Be sure to check your supplements to insure they contain piperine.  Curcumin is also fat-soluble, so it is advised to take it with a fatty meal.  8

My Past with the Recipe Bobotie

When I was studying food in Peru in 1985, I met a couple from West Africa.  Upon learning about my work, they were anxious to share their personal receipt for their national dish bobotie, but I declined it, saying I already had this in my repertoire back home.  How often I have regretted my quick retort!

Applying Lessons in the Kitchen to Life

As we were exploring in my last entry on nkyemire, everything is about “keeping our kitchens clean”.  We tidy all up, as we go along in the cooking process, as well as in our lives; this way we don’t end up with an overwhelming mess at the end, in either our environments or our beings.

Humility is key to accomplishing the above, as is balance.  In the final analyses, we must admit that of ourselves we are without the power to effect lasting change.  Balance, however, is required, for without our fervent participation, God also is unable to effect permanent change within us.  We can-must-ask for humbleness of mind and stability in our beings, for he loves to help those who seek him.

References:

  1. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 263.
  2. Ibid., p. 430.
  3. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=78
  4. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 430.
  5. Ibid.
  6. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=78
  7. Ibid.
  8. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/top-10-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-turmeric#section1

finished product

Bobotie  (African Lamb or Beef Curry-Custard Dish)  Yields: 8-10 servings.  Total prep time: 2 hr/  active prep time: 40 min/  baking time: 80 min.

2 tbsp butter

2 med onions, chopped

2 lbs ground lamb or beef  (Organic ground beef is $5.95/lb at Trader Joe’s, and our local Grocery Outlet usually carries ground lamb for $6.49/lb.)

2 lg eggs

1/4 c milk

2 slices bread, broken in small pieces

1/4 c dried apricots, chopped small

1/4 c raisins

1/4 c blanched, slivered almonds, chopped

2 tbsp sugar

1 tbsp curry powder

2 tbsp lemon juice

1 tsp salt  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; an inexpensive fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco for $4.95 for 5 lbs.)

5 lg bay leaves  (It’s preferable to get these in bulk at your favorite grocery store, so you can choose large bay leaves, if possible.)

Topping

1 egg

3/4 c milk

1/4 tsp turmeric

  1. sweating onions

    Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

  2. In a large sauté pan, sweat (cook until translucent) onion slices, in hot butter; see photo.  Add lamb or beef, salt and pepper generously, as salting meat heavily while cooking adds greatly to flavor; cook until browned.  Remove from heat.
  3. In a large bowl, combine egg, 1/4 c milk, and bread crumbs; mash bread with a fork.
  4. bay leaves pressed into meat

    Add apricots, raisins, almonds, sugar, curry, lemon, and salt.  Blend well.

  5. Using a slotted spoon, remove cooked meat to the fruit/almond mixture. Mix well and place in a 2-quart casserole.  With hand, spread out evenly and press down firmly.
  6. Gently press in bay leaves, using a finger to make a hole in meat, prior to placing in the bay leaf (see photo above).
  7. custard topping poured over meat mixture

    Bake uncovered for 20 minutes.

  8. Meanwhile make topping in a small bowl, by beating egg, milk and turmeric lightly; set aside.
  9. After 20 minutes, pour topping over mixture in casserole (see photo).
  10. Bake 40 more minutes; at which point, take out bay leaves.
  11. Continue baking until custard is completely set, about 20 additional minutes; see photo at top of recipe.  Serve with rice and chutney and experience heaven!

Ukrainian Spinach with Noodles

Ukrainian spinach with noodles

Let’s explore the benefits of alternative pastas, as well as the history of semolina.  This dynamite recipe for Ukrainian Spinach and Noodles often graced my buffet tables in the 1980’s and 90’s, when I was catering historical meals.  Being so health conscious now, I have altered it to included important ghee and gluten-free pasta, both of which are optional.

Benefits of Red Lentil Sedanini

Here I employ organic red lentil sedanini from Trader Joe’s, in place of wheat semolina pasta.   Based on a serving of 3/4-cup-dry, this alternative pasta is high in both protein-13grams-and fiber-12% of the RDI.  These two factors allow the sedanini’s carbohydrates-11% of the RDI -to be absorbed more slowly than that of semolina pasta; thus, it has a different impact on blood sugar.  In addition, it is believed that fiber and protein may aid in weight loss, and high fiber also improves digestion.  1

Sedanini is a superb source of iron, with its 15% of the daily requirement.  This helps with anemia, especially when eaten with foods rich in vitamin C, to increase the absorption of the non-heme iron found here-this is a plant iron, rather than iron derived from meats.  3

My Ukrainian noodles provide all these health benefits found in red lentil sendanini, plus those of powerful ghee (for information on ghee see balsamic eggs).

Origins of Pasta

There is always the big question: did pasta originate in China or Italy?  The popular story is that Marco Polo found it in China, but Reay Tannahill points out in Food in History that what Polo ‘discovered’ has been taken to be something new, when actually he discovered that the Chinese had pasta ‘which are like ours’.  4

Macaroni was its common name in Italy.  It is claimed that its use goes back to Etruscan times-the time of this pre-Roman country Estruria in west-central Italy.  Therefore, it would pre-date the Chinese noodle by about 500 years.  This, however, is speculative, as it is not known if the knitting-needle-shaped objects found in tombs were indeed meant for rolling dough around.  It is verified, however, that Apicius (the first century Roman gourmet, who provided the exceptional treatise on cookery of antiquity), had recipes using lasagna in it, which allows us to see that boiled flatbread, as opposed to baked flatbread, was being used at this time.  5

From at least around 1200 A.D. , Indians and Arabs were consuming pasta.  Both had names for it meaning ‘thread’: Indians called it sevika, while Arabs used Persian rishta.  Italians made a larger noodle and named it spaghetti, derived from spago, or string.  It is attested that Italians had stuffed shapes such as ravioli and tortellini by the middle of this century, with parallels elsewhere.  Russia had pel’meni, China-won ton, Tibet-momo, and the Jewish kitchen-kreplachs.  These stuffed pasta shapes may well have originated in the Near East and then been transmitted in an arc from there.  6

‘Macrows’-Macaroni and Cheese-in the 14th Century

Despite all these varieties, the most common Italian name for pasta seems to have been macaroni, which was flat, rather than the round shape found today.  In the English Forme of Cury, circa 1390, there is a receipt for ‘macrows’ (an anglicized plural), with butter and cheese, which is believed to not  have been accepted as a very high-class food.  7

As an aside, in its 1859 American receipt for macaroni, The Young Housekeeper’s Friend directs cooks to watch for ever-present insects in the pasta and to hold a shovel full of red-hot coals over the finished product for browning.  8

Lesson Applied

I tend to make old favorites into new recipes that meet my present needs for health, substituting high quality ingredients for those that were marginal, or even damaging, as found in the original.

It’s quite easy to stock our refrigerators with delicious, power-packed food, when we discover what our particular needs actually are.  It takes some concentrated effort at first to discover our body’s unique requirements, then we need strength to put into practice these new steps.  When we approach this endeavor with courage and perseverance, we rise above hindrances brought on by old detrimental habits, which is true in both eating and life at large.

In this way we can live more freely in every respect, promoting vibrant bodies, minds, and spirits-all of which we purpose to guard with diligence.  Enjoy this delicious dish, which increases vitality and brings immense pleasure.

References:

  1. https://www.today.com/food/best-healthy-pasta-alternative-might-be-made-lentils-t149072 and  https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323529.php
  2. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/semolina
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/pasta
  4. Reay Tannahill, Food in History (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1988, 1973), p. 234.
  5. Ibid., p. 234.
  6. Ibid.., pp. 235, 236.
  7. Ibid., p. 236, 237.
  8. Facsimile of Mrs. Cornelius, The Young Housekeeper’s Friend  (Boston: Brown, Taggard and Chase, 1859), p.. 176..

Ukranian Spinach with Noodles  Yields: 8 entee servings.  Total prep time: 30 min (42 min, if making homemade ghee).

2 c (8 oz) dried pasta  (I used  the alternative, organic, red lentil sedanini from Trader Joe’s)

8 tbsp ghee or butter  (I prefer ghee-recipe below-made from grass-fed Kerry butter, which is available most reasonably at our local Winco; Costco also carries this inexpensively-often with great sales.)

1 lg onion, chopped small

24 oz fresh spinach leaves  (Packages of organic are available at Trader Joe’s for $2.29/ 6oz.)

1 1/2 c (6 oz) Gruyere cheese, grated  (Also available reasonably at Trader’s.)

Salt and pepper to taste  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; a fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco for $4.95 for 5 lbs.)

  1. first rise of whey solids

    If substituting butter for ghee, go directly to step 6.  To prepare health-giving ghee, which takes about 12 minutes, first prep a coffee-filter-lined strainer, over a heat-proof dish, and set aside.  Using only a heavy-bottomed saucepan, melt 8 oz unsalted butter-preferably Irish, grass-fed, Kerry butter from Costco-over medium heat, shaking pan to speed up melting.  Note: there is less wastage using only half a pound of butter, compared to doubling recipe with a pound.

  2. first breaking of milk solids

    When melted, cook until an even layer of white whey proteins forms on top (see photo above).

  3. second rising of whey proteins

    Continue cooking until milk solids break apart, and foam subsides, temperature will be about 190 degrees (a thermometer isn’t required); see photo.  At this stage you have clarified butter.  Note: if foam is starting to brown deeply and quickly, your pan is not heavy enough to make ghee; thus, remove from heat and immediately strain this clarified butter in a coffee-filter-lined strainer.

  4. ghee finished with golden color showing at edge

    To proceed with ghee, cook butterfat until second foam rises and it begins to build in pan; the bubbles will be very dense.  This will take 2-3 more minutes, and temperature will reach 250 degrees.  The foam will rise quite high in pan and there will be a hint of golden color forming at the edge of foam (see photo).  Watch carefully as dry casein particles, settled on bottom of pan, will brown quickly.

  5. Immediately, gently strain butterfat through a coffee filter, into a heat-proof dish.  Cool and transfer into an airtight container to keep out moisture.  This lasts for many weeks, at room temperature, and up to six months, when stored in the refrigerator.
  6. In a covered stock pot, over medium heat, bring to a boil: 4 qt water, 1 tbsp oil, and 2 tsp salt.
  7. Grate cheese and set aside.
  8. Melt 8 tbsp (4 oz) of ghee, or butter, in a large sauté pan over medium heat; add chopped onion and sweat-cook until translucent.
  9. the cooking down of fresh spinach

    When onion is cooked, add part of the spinach to pan and cook, adding more spinach as the first becomes limp (see photo).  Meanwhile, go to next step.

  10. When water is boiling, add pasta to pot and cook for 5-6 minutes, until desired tenderness; stir occasionally.  Remove from heat and drain.
  11. Add cooked pasta to pan of onions/spinach; stir gently until heated through.
  12. Toss with grated cheese; season with salt and pepper to taste.  See photo at top of recipe.
  13. This is an incredible taste treat!

Tabbouleh (Lebanese parsley and burghul salad)

tabbouleh

Let’s examine the background of tabbouleh and the process of making burghul, or bulgur, in the second of this series, coming from my 1980’s cooking class on Middle Eastern cuisine.  My recipe uses our 21st century food processor, which affords an easy preparation of this healthy, traditional taste-treat-a recurrent dish in my kitchen.

Background of Tabbouleh

Tabbouleh is mostly widely known as a Lebanese recipe, though it is popular throughout the Levant, the large area east of the Mediterranean Sea, including such countries as Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories, Jordan, present-day Israel, etc.  The Levantine Arabic word tabbule is derived from tabil, which means “seasoning”; its literal translation is “dip”.  This salad is traditionally a part of the mezze, or first course of appetizers; it originated in the mountains of Lebanon and Syria, where they have favored qadb, or edible herbs, in their diet since the Middle Ages.

How is Burghul Made?

One of tabbouleh’s main ingredients is burghulbulgur-an ancient preparation of wheat-usually durum; it is made by partially cooking wheat berries, then drying them, producing a glassy hard interior.  Next, they are moistened again to toughen the outer bran area; then, ground into large chunks, removing the bran and germ in the process, while leaving the endosperm.   These pieces are then sifted and classified according to grade.  Coarse burghul (to 3.5 mm across) is commonly used in pilafs and salads, while a fine burghul (o.5 mm) is utilized in making sweets, such as puddings.  This particular wheat product is most prevalent in the Middle East and North Africa.  It has both long-shelf life and a quick-cooking features, thus making it is an ideal, basic ingredient for this time-tested salad.

Tabbouleh at Nicholas’ for the 32 Years

For all 32 years I have lived in Oregon, I have been indulging in this treasured salad at the Mediterranean establishment Nicholas’, one of my favorite Portland restaurants.  Presently it has three locations in our metropolitan area, with my current choice being the upscale version on N.E. Broadway, with its comfortable decor.

Nicholas’ original place on Grand Ave-Portland’s first Middle Eastern restaurant-however, was a mere hole in the wall until the late-nineties, when it was first remodeled.  The owners opened its two other locations in 2003 and 2010, with the exact same menus and prices, but with much more modern, “posh” environments.

When I started going to the original eatery on Grand, before its remodel, I would be instantly transplanted back to the romance of the small cafes I knew in impoverished Peru.  There I had the opportunity to study Peruvian food for three weeks in 1985, to augment my food history business (see Bolitos de Chocolat y Coco).  Even though I like more comfort now, it was actually this original Nicholas’ restaurant on Grand that thrilled my heart the most, with its quaint poverty contrasted by incredible food-oh the glorious, abundant food!

My Three Favorite Portland Restaurants

Back then, with pride in my city, I always took my out-of-town visitors to my three favorite restaurants: Nicholas’, Bread and Ink, and The Original Pancake House (listed as one of James Beard’s top ten in the nation in the 70’s-see Dutch Babies).  All of these have been serving great food since my 1986 arrival.  Hands down, my guests always proclaimed the exquisite, poorer Nicholas’ as by far the best.

Our Bountiful Vegetarian Repast

In those early days, our order always remained the same: humus, tabbouleh, and falafels, all of which came with their ever-present, gigantic, hot-from-the-oven pita bread, crowding the entire center of the table.  Though only consisting of three individual servings, this elegant, vegetarian repast was so abundant that if there were less than four of us, we took leftovers home-all for a pittance.  My guests marveled at the quality of both the food and experience, for it was definitely like being transported to a Third World country.

Age has mellowed me some, for today I love to frequent the more dignified Nicolas’ on N.E. Broadway.  Still wowing my guests with its exceptional food, I now order their incredible chicken kabobs, humus, and tabbouleth, of course, while ending with their exceptional baklava.  This amply pleases my friend’s great expectations, which I have encouraged, for there is great romance here, though perhaps not as pronounced as that of their captivating 1980’s café.

References:

https://www.britannica.com/topic/bulgur

http://cobornsdeliversblog.com/2015/02/03/demystifying-ancient-grains-bulgur/

Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 468.

finished product

Tabbouleh (Lebanese burghul and parsley salad)  Yields: 6 servings.  Total prep time: 35 min plus 1 hr for chilling.

3/4 c burghul, bulgur wheat  (Available in bulk at our local Winco, or organic burghul may be found at the national upscale New Season’s.)

2 c chopped curly parsley, 1 lg bunch  (Organic is best, which is only slightly more expensive.)

1 bunch green onions, chopped

2 firm, ripe med tomatoes  (May use organic Roma tomatoes, which are relatively inexpensive.)

Scant 1/4 c fresh lemon juice  (2 small lemons needed.)

1/4 c olive oil  (Avocado oil will also work; good olive oil, however, is more flavorful and really healthy when not heated to high temperatures, which makes it carcinogenic.)

1/4 c fresh mint, chopped  (May substitute 2 tsp dried mint, or to taste.)

1 1/2 tsp salt, or to taste  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is important for optimum health; an inexpensive fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco.)

1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper, or to taste

  1. juicing lemons the easy way

    Boil 1 1/2 c water, stir in burghul, set aside to cool.

  2. Clean parsley, onions, and tomatoes with an inexpensive, safe, effective vegetable spray (combine 97% distilled white vinegar with 3% hydrogen peroxide).  Let sit for 3 minutes; then, rinse well in a sink full of water three times.
  3. Juice lemons, by first rolling them on counter, pressing down hard with hand, to loosen meat; extract juices; set aside. (See above photo of easy hand-held juicer, available at our local Bob’s Red Mill.)
  4. Break stems off parsley and place in a food processor.  Chop small, by repeatedly pressing the pulse button-this may also be done with a knife, which is more laborious.  Place in a large bowl.
  5. Chop green onions (may include the green part, in addition); add to bowl.
  6. For ease in slicing, cut tomatoes with the skin side down (see photo below).  Mix in with parsley and onions.
  7. chopping tomatoes so to conserve juices

    Place lemon juice in a glass 1-c measuring cup (should be a scant 1/4 c); fill the rest with olive oil to measure 1/2 c.  Add mint, salt, and pepper; beat well with a fork.

  8. Drain burghul when cool, add to vegetables, pour beaten dressing over top, and blend well.  Chill for 1 hour before serving (see photo of finished product at top of recipe).  This is so healthy and good!

Portuguese Figos Recheados

figos recheados

This is the third and last of my Portuguese recipes for this great ethnic meal; I, however, serve this candy/fruit figos recheados with many other meals as well.

When I entertain, I always serve homemade candies along with the dessert.  Usually these are my Peruvian bolitos de chocolat y coco (see 2016/11/28) and the treasured national candy of India barfi; this recipe will follow in the future.  Lately, however, Portuguese figos recheados (figs stuffed with chocolate and almonds) are the final inspiration at my dinners.  Such was the recent case with my beloved missionary friends Val and Waffle Lomilo.  I take a tangent today into their world, so we can learn better to eat with reverence.

My relationship with Val goes back 22 years.  Our mutual friend Kelly, who now resides in heaven, introduced us to each other in 1995, over slides in her basement of Val’s mission work in Uganda.   My heart had just been softened, by my asking Jesus to live in it; thus, my supple emotions were mesmerized by this people and especially their food.

I learned that the meager diet of these poorest of poor, which are in my friends’ arid, mission region, consists primarily of foraged herbs and a bitter fruit with its nut, which is boiled three times to make it palatable; garden vegetables are available only as the frequent droughts allow; maize (cooked corn mush) and beans are also a luxury, which they can’t always afford.

The diet of the wealthier, in Uganda’s more lush areas, has a greater amount of organic garden vegetables, along with such fruits as mangoes and papayas, and ample beans and maize.  Also to my delight, it includes the ceremonial slaughter of a chicken for honored guests.

This nourishment of these better-off is simple and pure, making it healthier than ours with all our fast foods and altered ingredients, such as added hormones in meat/dairy products, foods with GMO’s, etc.  (Note: in this poor country genetically moderated organisms being added to their crops is just now becoming a controversy; they have already lifted the ban for GMO’s in the banana crop, due to its recent huge failure.)

In America food is so available that obesity is a major problem.  Our countrymen are often thrilled with weight loss when they visit Africa.  On the other hand, Africans are overjoyed with the compliment ‘you look so fat’, and gratitude is expressed after a meal with ‘thank you for increasing my volume’.

At present there is a famine in Uganda’s arid region, which hurts the children and elderly the most.  We in this country can’t comprehend such food shortage and its effect on the human spirit.  According to my friends, it produces a sense of deep community, in those that withstand it, as they share each other’s pain.   These humble people know the true meaning of God’s grace that keeps them alive in stark adversity.

Waffle and Val, who experience a heart for the broken, feed these hungry souls the word of God, which is also known as the bread of life.  This proven substance, in turn, can provide them with answers to their natural needs, for this is what our gracious Father does best.

We are grateful for our vast provision here in America, as we strive to honor our bodies with healthy eating.  At the same time, our faithful prayers move mountains as we intercede for those less-fortunate.

Now, may we take courage to experience moderate, joy-filled pleasure in this incredible dessert: be blessed by these simple figos recheados, the last recipe in my Portuguese series.

shaving chocolate

figs ready for baking

Figos Recheados (dried figs stuffed with almonds and chocolate)  Yields: 12 large stuffed figs.  Total prep time: 35 min.

Note: these are best served hot, but they are also great at either room temperature or cold.

 

 

1/4 cup almonds, plus 12 extra almonds (18 extra almonds will be needed for topping smaller figs, such as mission figs.)

12 large figs   (Turkish figs are best for size and quality; 18 figs will be needed, if using the smaller mission fig.)

1/2 ounce (1/2 square) semi-sweet chocolate, finely grated

  1. For hot figs at the end of a meal, do steps 2-9 ahead; then, set aside.  Twenty minutes before serving, preheat oven to 350 degrees and bake as directed in step 10-11.
  2. Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
  3. Place almonds on a cookie sheet and bake for 15 minutes in middle of oven; go to next step.
  4. With a sharp knife, finely grate the chocolate, place in a small bowl, set aside (see photo above).
  5. Cut off stems of figs; make a careful, but deep, indentation in the opening of each with the tip of your finger; set aside.
  6. After nuts are toasted, remove from oven, and take off pan to cool quickly.  Set aside 12 almonds (18 for smaller figs) and pulverize the other 1/4 cup in a food processor, by repeatedly touching the pulse button.  (May use a blender or Vita Mix.)
  7. Add almond meal to grated chocolate; mix well.
  8. Using a spoon and your finger, press this mixture in the hollow of each of the figs; pinch openings together firmly (see above photo).  Place stuffed figs, stem side up, on a foil-lined baking sheet.
  9. Bake in middle of an oven, preheated to 350 degrees, for 5 minutes; then, turn figs upside down and bake for an additional 5 minutes.
  10. Gently, but firmly, press a whole toasted almond in top of each hot fig.
  11. May keep leftovers in refrigerator for future use  (cold figs are also excellent).

Ensalada Iberica

ensalada Iberica

Ensalada Iberica is the perfect accompaniment to last week’s Portuguese pork, because of its sweet base of oranges and dates, along with an abundance of piquant onions and lemon-vinaigrette.  This quick salad pleases our palettes.  Its strong combination of complimentary foods is additionally enhanced with the spice coriander, which is also a “seasoning match made in heaven” for pork, as noted by Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page in Culinary Artistry.  Thus these two dishes balance each other, resulting in excellent flavors and joy unspeakable.  1

During the 1980’s, my extensive cooking classes in Montana included a group of twelve professionals, all of whom were friends.  For years they came monthly for each new theme I presented.  We grew to love each other, as I taught them easy steps in making glorious food.  A grieving took place at our parting, brought on by my decision to move to Portland in February of 1986.

My strongest fan among them, Larry, organized a going-away party for me.  He chose an upscale Chinese restaurant, since a travel agent in the group had hoped to take me to China, to teach native foods on one of her tours.  At our celebration, they graciously presented me with a restaurant-caliber, 15 ½” x 10 ½” cake pan and a stock pot, as seen in my photos; how these have blessed my work.

At one of our classes, someone encouraged me to consider the then new concept of computers for my work.  I responded that I will never do that, for it was beyond me.  Technology, however, has enabled the expansion of my endeavors beyond my imagination.

Back then I wrote everything out by hand, as I constantly discovered new themes from various cultures and ages.  All my research came from hard copies of books and publications; I searched for the sources of my inspiration at the local library, in an array of cook books, and in such publications as Montana newspapers, the New York Times, and numerous fashionable magazines.  My existence was marked by creativity, as I developed my faculty for research.  This skill was further sharpened by my graduate work at Portland State University, 1988-91.

Discovering truths in food history is what I do; it is essential that I know their validity.  As a result, to this day, I prefer to obtain my information from actual books, which possess a soundness that I trust, over that of internet.

Both this and its subsequent post, on Portuguese foods, are from that early application of my studies in Montana.  These entries provide exceptional taste treats.  Enjoy!

  1. Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page, Culinary Artistry (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996), pp. 159, 160, 268.

chopping orange segments

Ensalada Iberica  Yields: 5-6 servings.  Total prep time: 25 min.

Note: best to make and chill several hours before serving.

2 lg oranges  (Organic is best for flavor and quality, as orange skins readily absorb pesticides; these are often available at a good price at Trader Joe’s.)

1 small/med red onion, thinly sliced  (May use 2 small, organic cipollini onions; they are expensive, but so good!)

1 small can sliced ripe olives, net dr. wt. 2.25 ounces

1/2 c pitted dates, packed down, cut in halves lengthwise  (About 1/3 lb is needed.)

1/4 c olive oil

1/4 c lemon juice  ( 2-3 small lemons are needed.)

3/4 tsp salt, or to taste

1/4 tsp fresh ground pepper, or to taste

1/4 tsp ground coriander

Bed of spinach leaves or lettuce

  1. easy juicing of lemons

    Peel oranges, divide them in half, cut each half cross-wise in half again, so it is easy to separate segments (see photo above).

  2. Peel and slice onions thinly.
  3. In medium bowl, combine oranges, onions, olives, and date halves.
  4. Juice lemons with a hand-held juicer, watch market for this marvelous tool (see photo).
  5. Combine olive oil, lemon juice, salt, pepper, and coriander in a small sealed jar; shake vigorously; adjust seasonings.
  6. Pour over fruit, mix well, and refrigerate until serving time-preferably for several hours-so flavors can meld.
  7. Serve on a bed of spinach leaves or lettuce.
  8. This is a favorite of mine, which I have made since the early 1980’s.

1960’s Portuguese Pork

Portuguese pork roast

My gift of hospitality was birthed during my youth in the mid-twentieth century, for then I watched my mother host elaborate dinner parties.  As an excellent cook, she prepared glorious feasts, often with international themes; this 1960’s recipe for Portuguese pork blessed guests repeatedly.  While in college, I meticulously copied her treasured receipts and began my own journey, fostering nourishment of body and soul.

In 1982, God converted this inherent gift into my lifetime work.  Then I began catering meals and teaching a profusion of cooking classes, utilizing researched historical recipes.  One of these classes was on my mother’s Portuguese foods, on which I expanded, incorporating the salad Ensalada Iberica and dessert Figos Recheados, my next weeks’ posts.

Slowing down, smelling the roses, feeding ourselves and others are important traits. In doing such, let us choose pleasure in even the simplest of foods.  These pleasures seem amplified. when someone else prepares the meal; thus, their charity reaches our hearts regardless of what is served.  Macaroni and cheese can thrill us, when made with love by a friend.

There is an element of courage, which results in unexpected joy, when we graciously receive ailments we aren’t sure of.  While living in Billings, Montana, a friend invited me to celebrate Easter with her.  Upon arrival I discovered we were partaking of rabbit; I was challenged in eating this, especially on this holiday!  Expressing gratitude, I bravely proceeded and found it palatable, as long as I didn’t concentrate on it being Easter.  Though I have never again experienced this meat, fond memories flood my mind whenever it is mentioned.

Let us be strong in both giving and receiving benevolent fellowship; use my series of proven receipts to host this cultural affair for your loved ones, or better yet invite someone newly acquainted.

In Culinary Artistry, Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page note strong compliments to pork; among the most vibrant are vinegar, garlic, black pepper, oranges and onions-all of which are present in this detailed dinner.   Enjoy my creative repast!  1

  1. Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page, Culinary Artistry (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996), p. 159.

chopping jalapeno peppers

Portuguese Pork  Yields: 8-10 servings.  Inactive prep time for marinating: 1 day/  active prep time: 30 min/  cooking time: 3 1/2 hr.

4 lb pork loin roast

1 1/3 c water

1 c cider vinegar  (Trader Joe’s carries an inexpensive raw version, which has great health benefits.)

5 med/lg cloves of garlic, minced

3 tepino peppers  (If desired, use jalapeno peppers, which are milder.)

Salt and pepper  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; a fine grind is available at Costco for $4.95/5 lb.)

1 c sliced green olives  (May serve additional in a bowl at table.)

Baked yams  (Yams and sweet potatoes are different varieties of the same vegetable, they are interchangeable.)

  1. Place water and vinegar in a 9 1/2″ x 7 1/2″ x 3″ pan, or 3-quart baking dish).
  2. Mince garlic, add to vinegar mixture.
  3. Cut peppers in half lengthwise, scoop out seeds with a spoon, chop fine, and add to vinegar mixture (see photo).  Note: be sure to wash hands thoroughly, as burning will result from touching eyes, if you don’t.
  4. Place pork in marinade and marinate in refrigerator for at least 24 hours, turning roast halfway through, at about 12 hours.
  5. Preheat oven to 300 degrees.  Before placing in oven, turn roast again, salting and peppering the top well.  Bake for 1 3/4 hours.  Proceed immediately to next step.
  6. Wash yams and pierce several times with a fork.  Cover with foil; place top of foil on potato, where sealed, face-up in the oven while baking; this keeps juices from leaking out.  Start baking these at the same time you begin roasting the meat; bake for about 3 hours, as the oven is only set at 300 degrees.
  7. After baking for first 1 3/4 hours, turn roast for the last time.   Once more, salt and pepper the top well.  Bake for another 1 3/4 hours.
  8. When cooking is complete, remove roast from oven, cool for 15 minutes.  Toward the end of this time, take yams out of oven and place on plates; next, cut pork in thick slices and arrange on dishes; top with sliced olives.  (It is good to serve additional olives in a small bowl at table.)
  9. This pork is superb with the Portuguese salad Ensalada Iberica and dessert Figos Recheados, my next weeks’ posts.