New American Biscuit, made with almond flour

almond flour biscuits

The benefits of almonds and almond flour are given here, along with a recipe for the new American biscuit-made with almond flour-to comply with multiple popular diets, currently present in America (gluten-free, keto, paleo, etc., and plain good eating).  This 20-minute biscuit is exceptionally light and moist, a great alternative treat.

Almond, the seed of a plum-like stone fruit, or drupe, is the world’s largest tree-nut crop.  This nut is a close relative of the plum, peach, and cherry, with its stony shell.  California is now the largest producer of the cultivated almond, Prunus amygdalus, which originally came from western Asia.  There are also several dozen wild or minor species.  1

As an aside, the nutty flavor of both almonds and its flour are not at all like the strong and distinctive flavor of almond extract, which is derived from bitter almonds; strong almond flavor is found only in wild or bitter almonds.  2

Our “pure” almond extract is made with aromatic benzaldehyde-from bitter almonds.  It, however, is without the cyanide that accompanies it in these almonds themselves.  On the other hand, “natural” extract usually contains benzaldehyde produced from cassia bark, while “imitation” almond extract contains benzaldehyde synthesized from pure chemicals.  None of these three extracts resemble, in flavor, the nutty sweet taste of the domesticated almond, or its flour.  3

Almonds are a power-packed food with their high content of antioxidant vitamin E and low levels of polyunsaturated fats, giving them a relatively long shelf life.  Their great, low-carb, sweet-tasting flour has an abundance of health benefits.  4

This nut and its flour are high in protein and fiber, rich in manganese, magnesium, copper, and phosphorus, as well as its above mentioned strength in vitamin E.  This last is a group of fat-soluble compounds that act as antioxidants in our bodies, thus preventing free radicals from doing damage, such as accelerating aging and increasing the risk of heart disease and cancer.  Lower rates of Alzheimer’s are also linked with vitamin E intake, in several studies.  5

One ounce (28 grams) of almond flour provides 35% of required daily intake of vitamin E, while the same amount provides 19% of the RDI of magnesium.  There is some evidence that the addition of magnesium in our diets results in improved blood sugar control, reduced insulin resistance, and lower blood pressure.  6

Magnesium is known to possibly help control blood sugar and improve insulin function.  Being low in carbs, yet high in healthy fats and fiber, baked goods made with almond flour also have a low glycemic index; thus, they release sugar into your blood slowly to provide a sustained source of energy.  For these two reasons, almond-flour-treats may be an answer to people struggling with type 2 diabetes and weight conditions.  7

There is some evidence that almond flour may help reduce the bad LDL cholesterol and lower blood pressure (studies along this line are inconsistent).  In this way, almonds may lower risks of heart disease.  8

Finally, this nut may promote good sleep, because of the sleep-regulating hormone melatonin present in them, as well as their high magnesium content, which also may improve sleep quality.  The magnesium purportedly reduces inflammation and the hormone cortisol, which is known to interrupt sleep.  Studies, however, are inconclusive; but some find almonds, on an empty stomach, before bed, are beneficial.  I like to eat one of these biscuits, several tablespoons of raw almond butter, and a glass of cold almond milk, before I retire.  9

It seems that most Americans are concerned about their weight and diet for one reason or another.  When I go into the market place, it seems most of the people I encounter are obese.  My heart breaks for them, as I once was caught in 226-pound body, as well.  Everything I did to lose weight-over several decades-failed.

I constantly resolved anew, to exercise for twenty minutes a day, three times a week; walking, however, brought so much pain to my heavy body that I couldn’t stick with my regime.  Today, my challenges have been reversed.  Now, I choose to lay down my beloved aerobic walking, in order to first prioritize my responsibilities, in any given day.  I walk as time allows, which takes great discipline for me, with my passion for this exercise.  Wow!  How things have changed.

Likewise, my 226-pound-body effortlessly and naturally melted away to a perfect 130-pound-frame, wearing a size four and six.  For me, this all came about when I finally let go and let God-as the saying goes.

It all started on October 2, 2002, when I suddenly had to stop a medication; its replacement came with the promise of a side effect of decreased appetite.  With great anticipation, I started what I thought was to be my miracle drug; three months later, however, during a doctor’s appointment, I discovered that I was six pounds heavier.

At that moment, I admitted total defeat, for there was no hope for me in the natural realm.  Crying out to God for help, I truly let go; I was inspired to tell the nurse that in the future I was going to close my eyes when she weighed me, and for her not to tell me what the numbers were.  We did this for several years, and my clothes-size slowly, but surely diminished.  Indeed it wasn’t me, but our Father who performed this miracle.

Today, the scales of life have changed.  Now with my active, vibrant life, I need to count my calories to insure I am eating enough to maintain my weight.  How pleasant is this problem.

We know that life can bring change, sometimes big, when we surrender our will; thus, we need to always be on our toes, expecting the best, which actually opens the door for the Omnipotent One to manifest good in our lives.

This biscuit promotes both health and pleasure; it is indeed good.  Enjoy its simple preparation, as given below.

References:

  1. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984. 2004), pp. 505.
  2. Ibid., 506.
  3. Ibid., 506.
  4. Ibid., 505.
  5. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/almond-flour#section3
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/9-foods-to-help-you-sleep#section1

biscuits baked to a golden brown

Almond Flour Biscuits  Yields: 8 biscuits.  Total prep time: 20 min/  active prep time: 7 min/  baking time: 13 min.

1/4 c heavy whipping cream, soured with 8 drops of lemon juice from squeeze ball  (Organic cream is important for health; Trader Joe’s carries this for $3.29/pt.  Regular sour cream will also work, though not as healthy.)

1 lg egg, lightly beaten

1 c almond flour  (Costco has the best price on this-$12.99 for 3 lbs.  It is also available in bulk at our local New Season’s.)

2 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; a fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco for $4.95 for 5 lbs.)

1 tsp konjac root powder, or similar ingredient  (Konjac root powder is available on-line; it promotes softness in baked goods.)

  1. curdled heavy whipping cream

    Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

  2. Place cream in a medium (cereal) bowl and squirt about 8 short squirts of lemon juice from lemon ball over surface.  Let sit for 4-5 minutes; you will be able to see the curdled cream when you tip the bowl to the side (see above photo).
  3. In a med/lg bowl, beat egg lightly.
  4. wet dough

    Shake all the dry ingredients in a quart-size, sealed storage bag; may also stir with a fork in a bowl.  Add dry ingredients and soured cream to egg.  Stir until flour is incorporated; mixture will be quite wet.  See photo.

  5. Place parchment paper on a cookie sheet.  Spoon dough for 8 biscuits on paper.  Bake for 13-14 minutes, or until light golden brown (see photo at top of recipe).  Remove from oven and cool on pan.  These will store well in the refrigerator for a number of days.

 

 

Chocolate Scones

chocolate scones

All confusion about the raw sugars (demerara, turbinado, muscovado, and sucanat) is resolved here, with the following detailed information and outstanding receipt.

In the mid-1990’s, I got this chocolate scone recipe from Cindy Mushet’s highly appraised Baking with the American Harvest.  I have adapted it by grinding my own flour, which is totally optional, as well as by adding some time-saving tips.  1

Ms. Mushet calls for sprinkling crystallized sugar, on top of the unbaked scones, after washing them with egg; I use demerara here.  This is a form of large granule sugar that gets its name from the location in Guyana, on the northern mainland of South America, where it originated centuries ago.  Today rather than Guyana, this form of cane sugar comes from a number of countries, such as Mexico and India; in the States it is produced in both Hawaii and Florida.

Demerara can be compared to turbinado, muscovado, and sucanat; these are all types of cane sugar, which are classified as raw, even though they do indeed require some processing.  Of these, the first three were originally known as “factory” brown sugars; all are produced during the initial processing of cane juice into unrefined sugar.  2

Most sugar cane grew in colonies or developing countries.  Sugar refining required expensive machinery to be produced; thus, its production came to be divided into two stages.  The initial stage of the crystallization of raw, unrefined sugar took place in factories near the plantations in these poor countries.  Industrial nations-the consumers-performed the expensive final stage, of refining this raw sugar product into white sugar.  3

The making of raw sugar requires two basic kinds of work: crushing the cane to collect the juice, then boiling off the juice’s water.  Originally the crushing called for hard physical labor, which in the Caribbean was accomplished by slaves, and the boiling called for large amounts of heat; thus, deforestation occurred there.  4

Three 19th century innovations helped make the production of raw sugar a more affordable luxury.  First, the application of steam power made this initial crushing process easier.  The next step, heating, was aided by the vacuum pan, which boils the syrup at a reduced pressure and therefore at a lower, gentler temperature.  Also, the multiple evaporator was added, which recycles the heat of one evaporation stage to heat the next.  5

From the Middle Ages until now, there was a clearing of many organic impurities; in the pre-industrial age, this was accomplished, at the beginning of the boiling stage, with the introduction of lime and a substance, such as egg white or animal blood.  These substances would coagulate and trap the coarse impurities.  Today, heat and lime only are generally used to coagulate and remove proteins and other impurities.  6

Then and now, with these boiling and clarification processes, dark brown syrup has resulted, to which seed crystals have then been introduced to bring about crystallization.  The final step, in making these factory sugars, has been the drawing off the molasses from the crystals, which originally occurred slowly-merely by the force of gravity.  For some time, refiners have used centrifuging-much like spinning lettuce-to quickly do this final step, producing raw sugar and the by-product of the first molasses.  7

Beginning in the 19th century until recently, this raw sugar has next been refined in refineries in industrial countries, where white sugar has been consumed.  Now it is produced in such developing countries as Mexico and India.

Today, the making of refined sugar starts with refined syrup being introduced, to wash the raw sugar.  Next, hot water dissolves it; then, a carbon absorbent clarifies and decolorizes it.  Evaporation and crystallization follow, with centrifuging being the final stage, producing white sugar, with the bi-product of cane syrups.  This last crystallization process is carefully controlled, giving individual sugar crystals a uniform size, with an astonishingly pure content of 99.85% sucrose-our white sugar.  8

As opposed to white sugar, “brown sugars” are sucrose crystals coated with a layer of dark syrup, from one stage or the other of sugar refining.  This provides them with a more complex flavor than white sugar.

There are several types of brown sugar.  The first type is factory brown sugars-produced during the initial processing of the cane juice into unrefined raw sugar, as defined above; the second is refinery brown sugars, or sugars produced at the refinery using this raw sugar as the starting material, not cane juice.  There are also what might be referred to as whole sugars, crystalline sugar still enveloped in the cooked cane juice from which it is formed (such as Indian jaggery or gur and Latin American piloncillo, papelon, or panela).

Factory brown sugars originally got their name, because of their production in factories near the plantations in cane-producing, tropical countries.  The first, demerara, then and now, has been a partially refined, large, somewhat sticky, yellow-gold grain, produced from the first crystallization stage of light cane juice into raw sugar.  It has a delicate, caramel-like, toffee flavor that augments certain baked goods (it is especially good for sprinkling on top of them).  9

The second, turbinado, has been raw sugar partly washed of its molasses coat during the centrifugation, resulting in large golden crystals that are not as sticky as those of demerara.  Though more refined than demerara, turbinado is less refined than what we now call brown sugar (refinery brown sugar), which is generally white sugar with molasses added back into it.  10

The artisanal muscovado, appearing to be very dark form of our refinery brown sugar, actually has been the product of the final crystallization from the dark mother liquor, or first molasses, in the making of raw sugar.  It was and is an unrefined cane sugar in which all the molasses is not removed, like it is with what we call our regular brown sugar.  11

This muscovado sugar, however, is more refined than demerara and turbinado, with a small-grained, wet, sticky texture that has a sweet impression at first that dissolves into a rich, floral, bittersweet note, leaving a slightly smoky aftertaste. Most of the muscavodo sugars, of which there is both light and dark, come from Mauritius, a republic made up of islands off the southeast coast of Africa.  12

On the other hand, sucanat, which stands for “sugar cane natural”, is the most unrefined of the raw cane sugars; it is merely evaporated cane juice, which has been handpaddled; this cools and dries the dark syrup, which is obtained by heating the extracted cane juice in a large vat.  It is a much finer grain than the demerara and turbinado crystals, and it is the healthiest of all the cane sugars, with an intense, dark, rich flavor, which is ideal in spicy baked goods.  13

With their minimal processing, all these raw sugars retain some minerals and vitamins, making them somewhat healthier than refined white sugar.  They, however, contain large amounts of sucrose, which is a composite molecule made up of one molecule each of glucose and fructose; thus, they should be eaten cautiously, as they may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, among other health issues.  14

How we treasure comfort foods, of which these scones are one of the best.  Our words, much like food, can comfort.  We are instructed to comfort those with the comfort which we have received; these opportunities delight our souls.

We are only equipped to do such, as we learn our lessons in life’s trials.  Slowing down in the midst of these storms allows for this equipping to best be established.

Webster’s describes establish, as to order, ordain, enact (a law, etc.) permanently.  Reading recipes isn’t required once our “muscles” have kinetically learned all the required movements, through multiple times of preparation.

Much like baking, establishing life’s lessons-and the laws they represent-is a process; we are perfected (matured) through practice, as we repeatedly go over the given steps, until the means for victory is indeed fixed in us.  By necessity, such progression requires patience, just like following a receipt, but once achieved we can share words of comfort with those in need around us.

I recently made a batch of these scones, with the following recipe, which I completed with clotted cream (I purchased a jar of imported Somerdale Devon Double Cream, from World Market).  Being unaware, my plans to take them to my regular prayer meeting, however, were thwarted, for it was the fourth of July, and prayer had been cancelled.  Quickly I decided to bless various neighbors with this treat, which brought great joy (and comfort) to all.  I also highly recommend my receipt for cocoa bread (see Cocoa Bread) to please your soul.

 

References:

  1. Cindy Mushet, Baking with the American Harvest, 5 volumes (Santa Monica, CA: Cindy Mushet, 1993-1996) Vol. 4, #1, p. 12.
  2. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 674.
  3. Ibid., p. 673.
  4. Ibid., p. 671.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid., pp. 670-672.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid., pp. 671, 672.
  9. Ibid., pp. 672, 674.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. https://www.care2.com/greenliving/what-is-demerara-sugar.html
  13. http://shop.wholesomesweet.com/Organic-Sucanat/p/WHSM-305000&c=Wholesome@GranulatedSugar
  14. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/demerara-sugar

prepped scones

Chocolate Scones  Yields: 8 scones.  Adapted from Cindy Mushet’s Baking with the American Harvest, Vol. 4, # 1, Spring, 1996.  Total prep time: 1 hour (only if grinding flour fresh, an additional 3/4 hr resting time is needed)/  active prep time: 40 min/  baking time: 20 min.

Note: best served with clotted cream, though butter and jam are also good; an imported Somerdale Devon Double Cream is available at World Market.

1 2/3 c unbleached white flour  (Bob’s Red Mill organic unbleached flour is ideal, or may grind 1 1/3 c organic soft winter wheat berries; this makes 2 c whole wheat pastry flour, with which 1/3 c flour must be removed after grinding-set this aside for flouring board.)

1/3 c cane sugar or coconut sugar  (Coconut sugar is healthier, with a lower glycemic index-for details see Zucchini Bread, 2017/07/24.)

1/3 c unsweetened cocoa powder  (Trader Joe’s carries a brand of high quality, reasonably priced.)

2 tsp baking powder

1/8 tsp salt

1 stick (4 oz) cold unsalted butter

3/4 c heavy cream

To Finish

1 lg egg, lightly beaten

Demerara sugar, or crystallized sugar  (Demerara sugar is available inexpensively in bulk at our local Winco.)

  1. grinding fresh flour with Kitchen Aid attachment

    If grinding flour fresh, do so now; see photo.

  2.  Preheat oven to 425 F (if grinding your own flour, wait to preheat oven).  Line a sheet pan with parchment paper.
  3. In a sealed storage bag, shake together: flour, sugar, cocoa powder, baking powder, and salt.
  4. cutting butter easily

    Easily cut cold butter into small pieces, by cutting stick in fourths length-wise; keeping cube in tact, rotate this stick and cut in fourths again; then, shave small pieces off end.  See photo below.

  5. Place butter in bowl with flour.  Using a pastry cutter, or two forks, blend until mixture is like a coarse corn meal, and flour is incorporated.  See photo below.
  6. Add cream and stir just until dough forms what Ms. Mushet calls “shaggy clumps”; flour will be barely incorporated.  See photo at bottom.
  7. mealy dough mixture

    Place this loosely formed mixture on a lightly floured board and knead several times, until dough is formed.  Do not over knead.  ONLY IF FRESHLY GROUND FLOUR IS BEING USED, place dough back in bowl, loosely cover with plastic wrap, and let sit for 45 minutes.   (Freshly ground flour is a coarser grind, which doesn’t absorb the moisture as readily as the store-bought white flour; thus, this resting time is required.)

  8. Pat out into a 7” round; cut into eighths.  Holding individual scones in hand, brush top and sides of each with egg wash and sprinkle top with crystallized sugar.  Place on parchment-covered pan (see photo at top of recipe).
  9. dough in “shaggy clumps”

    Bake for 16-18 minutes, or until edges are firm, but center is soft to the touch.  As you press on the edges, there will be a yielding, due to its high concentration of hot fat; scones, however, firm up as they cool.  Note: if using freshly ground flour, 18-20 minutes will be required for baking.

  10. Cool on wax paper at least 10 minutes before serving.  Ideally served with clotted cream, but butter and a good jam are also great.

Struan Bread, a Powerful Loaf

struan loaf

This incredible bread recipe came to me through Baking with the American Harvest, a beautifully laid-out baking journal, published bi-monthly by Cindy Mushet, during the early to mid-nineties.  This was before the popularity of blogs and what internet now offers with its vast information on food.  1

Back then, she originally mailed out a one-year subscription (six issues) from her base in Santa Monica, California, for $24/year; later it became four issues for $18 a year.  Each of these editions came printed on stiff, rich Manila paper with snippets of historical images scattered throughout; the recipes were tried and true, written in their timely context.  (While this creative lady was publishing this unique newsletter, I was placing food in the midst of its social/cultural history for popular magazines and educational journals.)

When examining my files recently, I discovered two letters from Ms. Mushet, dated the winter of 1994-95, in which she was responding to my request for her back issues, featuring a two-part review of chocolate (for my inspired version of one of these recipes, see chocolate scones).

This correspondence delighted me, for she was congratulating me on finding a fun and unique niche in the food industry, with my catering of events featuring historical foods.  This is my version of dinner theatre, in which the audience partakes, by eating the documented ailments, while I dressed in period costume use third-person to relay the full impact, of what Ms. Mushet refers to as “anthropological adaptations”.  (For more on my early business, see About, Serungdeng Kacang, Bolitos de Chocolat y Coco, Scottish Oat Scones, and Cocoa Bread,)

Blogging changed the world!  On-line publishing replaced hard-copy journals and newsletters, such as the above.  After a slow start, blogging spread rapidly during 1999 and the years following.  Wikipedia states that the early part of the second millennium marked the role of blogs becoming increasingly more main stream; it was then that politicians, political consultants, and news services began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming.  (Many believe that Watergate played the initial role in this development.)  Today, blogs are used effectively in many diverse fields, with food not being least among these.  2

In my blog entry today, I share Ms. Mushet’s struan bread, which she declares is legendary Scottish harvest bread, originally published by Peter Reinhart.  In my version of this, I like to use freshly ground flour which greatly enhances this staff of life, but is totally optional.  I also give detailed, foolproof instructions for the mess-free mixing of the dough in a food processor, followed by the kneading of it by hand, with little or no flour on a counter top.  Clean, clean, clean!

This bread is a winner, with everything but the kitchen sink in it; for among its grains, it calls for cooked brown rice, uncooked polenta, oats, and wheat bran, along with much more.  It often graces my larder, which is always stocked with fresh, homemade bread.  Enjoy!

References:

  1. Cindy Mushet, Baking with the American Harvest, 5 volumes (Santa Monica, CA: Cindy Mushet, 1992-1997).
  2. https://en.wikipedidia.org/wiki/Blog#Origins
  3. https://www.amazon.com/Cindy-Mushet/e/B001JSDHFW

optional grinding of flour with a Kitchen Aid attachment

Struan Bread  Yields: 1 loaf or 20 small rolls.  Total prep time: 3 hr/  active prep time: 30 min/  baking time: 30 min/  inactive prep time: 2 hr.

3 1/2 tsp active dry yeast  (Costco carries 2 lb packages of Red Star Active Dry Yeast; this keeps a long time in a sealed container in the freezer; it’s best when warmed to room temperature.)

1/4 tsp sugar

1 3/8-1 1/2 c tepid water, 110-115 degrees

2 1/2 c whole wheat flour  (Bob’s Red Mill is high quality.)

1 c unbleached white flour  (Optional: may grind 2 1/3 c organic hard red spring wheat berries to make the total 3 1/2 c fresh flour.)

1/4 c uncooked polenta

1/4 c rolled oats (Organic is only slightly more expensive in bulk; best price is at our local Winco.)

1/4 c brown sugar, packed

1/6 c wheat bran

1 tbsp poppy seed

2 tsp salt  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; a fine grind Himalayan salt is sold cheaply at Costco.)

1/4 c cooked brown rice  (May freeze individual 1/4-c baggies of leftover rice ahead of time, to thaw as needed.

Spay oil and oil, of your choice, for oiling a 13-gal plastic bag, used in raising bread

  1. proofed yeast

    If grinding your own flour, begin to do so now (see above photo).

  2. Place 1/4 c lukewarm water (110-115 degrees) in a small bowl; stir in yeast and 1/4 tsp sugar.  Let sit in a warm place, until creamy, foaming, and nearly double in size, for about 10 minutes (see photo).
  3. When yeast is proofed, place flour and all dry ingredients, as well as rice, in an 11-cup-or-larger-food processor; blend well.
  4. Add proofed yeast and 1 1/4 c tepid water to flour mixture. (Fresh-ground flour, however, only calls for 1 1/8 cups of water, as this is a coarser grind, not absorbing as much moisture.)  Turn machine on and

    dough after initial kneading by food processor

    knead for 35 seconds; turn off and let dough rest for 4 minutes (see photo).  This resting period cools dough, which is essential as processing increases heat, and too much heat will kill the yeast.

  5. After resting for 4 minutes, turn on the processor again; knead dough for 35 seconds more (see photo below). Take out and knead by hand for about 8 minutes, or until satiny smooth, minus the lumps from the grains; see

    dough after second kneading by food processor

    bottom photo for dough before and after kneading by hand.  (As wet dough readily sticks to hands, rinse and dry them as needed to facilitate easy kneading.  Store-bought flours are a finer grind; therefore they absorb the moisture more readily and won’t be so sticky.  Much moisture is absorbed while kneading by hand-this is especially true with freshly ground flour.  Ideally it should be firm, but supple when finished.  These instructions should be foolproof, but IF needed, do the following: if dough remains quite wet and sticky, after kneading by hand for several minutes, slowly add more flour to your board as you knead.  If, however, it is very stiff-too stiff to knead easily-place it back in processor, and knead in 1 tbsp water.

    dough before and after final kneading by hand

    If called for, which is unlikely, repeat this step until severe stiffness is gone, it is flexible, and kneading by hand is facile; CAREFULLY rest dough, so as not to overheat.  When hand-kneading is finished, it should be firm, smooth, not sticky.

  6. Place prepared dough in a 13-gal plastic bag, in which several tbsp of oil have been evenly distributed; let rise in a warm place for 60 minutes. (Only if using freshly ground flour, punch dough down and let rise it for an additional 30 minutes, to make lighter bread with this coarser flour).
  7. Punch dough down and form loaf-or rolls-and place in a bread pan sprayed with oil.  Loosely cover with a piece of plastic wrap, which has also been sprayed with oil.
  8. Let rise until doubled, for about 50-60 minutes.  Important: 30 minutes into the rising process, preheat oven to 400 degrees, to insure oven is ready when it is time to bake.
  9. When doubled, bake loaf for 27-30 minutes, or until bread sounds hollow when tapped on bottom (rolls will take 20 minutes).  Cool on rack.  Enjoy this power-packed bread!

Herbes de Provence Bread

Herbes de Provence bread

In my last entry on the history of garlic, I sited Provence, France as the place where America’s farm-to-table movement originated.  (Hopefully you were able to partake of my quick chicken soup.)

Here Herbes de Provence is creatively used in an easy, mess-free bread recipe, employing a food processor, which provides outstanding aroma and flavor.

This region’s commercial herb mixture-so prevalent on the market-only dates back to the 1970’s, about the time that Alice Waters started Chez Panisse.  In doing so, she initiated this American culinary (farm-to-table) trend based on fresh, simple foods combined with Provencal cooking methods (for more on this, see Quick Chicken Soup, 2018/05/11).

In their famous Mastering of the Art of French Cooking, 1961, Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck state that classical French cuisine utilizes far less herbs than most Americans would suspect; these Europeans traditionally use them as an accent and a complement, never dominating the essential flavors of the main ingredients.  Likewise, their emphasis in this bread is fine. 1

Various regions in France, as with all of southern Europe, have their own unique herbs mixes, according to available plants.  Our Herbes de Provence is considered the youngest member of this family of French mixes, usually referring to the mix of typical herbs from this southeastern Provencal region, though it is also produced in other countries presently.

Whether fresh or dried, these blends, which are not standard, often contain savory, marjoram, rosemary, thyme, and oregano, among other herbs; mixes sold under that name outside France can also include lavender.  The generic name Herbes de Provence doesn’t have Protected Geographical Status, such as I have defined for the balsamic vinegar in my Roasted Beet and Balsamic Chicken Salad, 2017/07/03.  Therefore, there is no guarantee that the herbs which make up these Franco composites were actually grown in Provence.

Originally their varying herbs were foraged in the wild in this region, and the name was used descriptively for those unspecified combinations; now, however, their vital ingredients often come from abroad.  In the 1970’s, Herbes de Provence mixes began to be formulated by spice wholesalers, such as Ducros in France, which is now a part of McCormick and Company.  Since then, these herbs have been cultivated there by both large producers and small family farms; nevertheless, the largest quantities of these herbal elements are actually imported, e.g., rosemary from Spain, thyme from Morocco, and marjoram from Egypt.

Different producers, including those in America, provide mixtures with unique tastes, which are subtly discerned, though their overall impact is common.  This bread boasts of the outstanding flavor of that herb blend, as found at our handy Trader Joe’s (which contains lavender).  This savory loaf pleases any palate!

References:

Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, vol. 1, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971), p. 18.

https://happybellyfish.com/herbs-de-provence-recipes-history/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbes_de_Provence

grinding wheat berries

Herbes de Provence Bread  Yields: 1 loaf.  Total prep time: 3 hours/  active prep time: 30 min/  inactive prep time: 2 hr/  baking time: 30 min.

1 3/8-1 5/8 c tepid water (105-115 degrees)

1 individual package of dry yeast  (May use 2 tsp of Red Star Active Dry Yeast, which is available inexpensively in 2 lb packages at Costco; this keeps well sealed in the freezer; best if brought to room temperature.)

2 1/4 tsp sugar

3 c whole wheat flour

1 c unbleached white flour  (Optional: may grind 2 2/3 c hard red spring wheat berries to make the total 4 c flour.)

1 tbsp Herbes de Provence  (Available at a good price at Trader Joe’s.)

1 1/4 tsp salt

13-gallon plastic bag plus 3-4 tbsp oil  (Any kind of oil will do for oiling bag.)

Coconut spray oil  (Pam coconut spray oil can be found in most grocery stores; our local Winco brand, however, is much less expensive.)

  1. proofing yeast

    If grinding your own flour, begin to do so now (see photo at top of recipe).

  2. Place 1/4 c lukewarm water-110 to 115 degrees-in a small bowl; stir in yeast and 1/4 tsp sugar.  Let sit in a warm place, until creamy, foamy, and nearly double in size, about 10 minutes (see photo above).
  3. Place flour, Herbes de Provence, 2 tbsp sugar, and salt in an 11-c-or larger-food processor; blend well.
  4. When yeast is proofed, add it and 1 3/8 c tepid water to flour mixture; for ease, may measure 1 1/4 c water, then remove 2 tbsp to make a total 1 3/8 c.  (With fresh-ground flour, however, only 1 1/8 c of water is needed.)  Turn

    dough after first 35-second kneading

    machine on and knead for 35 seconds (see photo); turn off and let dough rest for 4 minutes.  (This resting period cools dough, which is essential as processing increases heat, and too much heat will kill the yeast.)

  5. After pausing for 4 minutes, turn on the processor; knead dough for 35 seconds more (see photo below).  Take out and knead by hand for 5 minutes, or until satiny smooth; see bottom photo for dough after kneading by hand.  (As wet dough readily sticks to hands, rinse them

    dough after second 35-second kneading

    as needed to facilitate easy kneading.  Many store-bought flours are a finer grind; therefore, they absorb the moisture more readily and won’t be so sticky.  Much moisture is absorbed while kneading by hand-this is especially true with fresh-ground flour.  Ideally it should be firm, but supple when finished. These instructions should be foolproof, but IF needed, do the following: if dough remains quite wet and sticky, after kneading by hand for several minutes, slowly add more flour to your board as you knead.  If, however, it is too stiff to knead by hand easily, place it

    dough after kneading by hand

    back in processor, and knead in 1 tbsp water.  If called for, repeat this step until severe stiffness is gone, it is flexible, and kneading by hand is facile; carefully rest dough, so as not to overheat.  Note: dough should be firm and not sticky after final kneading.)

  6. Place prepared dough in a well-oiled 13-gallon plastic bag; let rise in a warm place for 50-60 minutes, or until double.
  7. Form loaf and place in a bread pan sprayed with oil.  Loosely cover with a piece of plastic wrap, which has also been sprayed with oil.
  8. Let rise until doubled, for about 50-60 minutes.  Important: 30 minutes into the rising process, preheat oven to 400 degrees, to insure oven is ready when it is time to bake risen bread.
  9. When doubled, bake loaf for 27-30 minutes, or until bread sounds hollow when tapped on bottom.  Cool on rack.  Enjoy this delightful bread!

1970’s Atomic Muffins

atomic muffins

My heart has always longed for ideal eating habits, though I haven’t always possessed the capacity for their required discipline.  Natural foods first came into my life in the early seventies, in my eccentric college town of Missoula, Montana.  It was there a friend taught me this powerful atomic muffin recipe.

Then I was attempting to nurture my body with the best; I looked great on the outside-118 compact pounds clothed in the best of vestures-but my insides were another story, for I had the hidden disease of bulimia, which was with me for a total of 3 years; half way through this, I briefly became anorexic and was admitted to Calgary, Alberta’s Foothills hospital, weighing 88 pounds on my mother’s scale.  There a rising physician, who was just breaking into this then unknown field, cared for me.

Eating disorders were rare at that time, though now they are commonplace.  My heart breaks for those that suffer thus, for I know firsthand their devastating grip.

During the years that followed this hospitalization, I went from an extreme 88 to a gross 226 pounds, before I surrendered and God brought complete healing to me: I now have a beautiful, healthy physique, and I eat sanely, with an ability to make balanced choices, having an innate strength to neither over- or under-consume.

This privilege grew progressively.  As a direct answer to an earnest cry for help, it initiated with my courageous act to turn from the bulimic darkness, on a crisp November day in 1978.

Back then, my jaws would hurt from daily, nonstop eating and purging; it was during this fiery torment that I sought the help of a Catholic priest, whom by chance I had heard was successfully recovering from alcoholism; thus, I trusted the hope, visible in his mastery of obsession, to spill over into my life.

My plans were to purge one last time before my 1 PM appointment, but I awoke to late to do so; hence, the first ominous hurdle presented itself, with my intense temptation to skip the meeting.  Something bigger than I, however, got me there.

With this glimmer of determination, I arrived at this parish, unknown to me, in a small neighboring town, only to suffer the second attempt to stop my breakthrough: the priest answering my knock informed me that his superior, the recovering alcoholic, was unavailable.  My instinct was to flee, but I blindly accepted his proffered services instead.

This man, whether knowingly or unknowingly, told me my bulimia wasn’t sin, but rather something beyond my control; he suggested that I stop doing it; at the same time he administered grace, saying that IF upon occasion I failed, I was to ask the Father for forgiveness, and immediately return to my new eating.  All this miraculously seemed doable, for the seed of faith had been established.

I will never forget leaving this sanctuary and walking out into the parking lot, where the asphalt seemed to dance with the reflection of God’s light, from Montana’s perpetual Big Sky.  Indeed my soul was dancing along with this lively, beautiful pavement; my new birth had begun!

At about three weeks into this profound freedom, a stark overwhelming urge to purge an excessive meal assailed me, in which there was actual physical weakness, as I staggered going back and forth toward a public bathroom.  This moment became a crucial step in proving my liberty, for it was then I decisively turned from death to life: clarity came with the vivid memories, both of the sweet peace experienced during this abstinence, as well as the subsequent pleasures derived from foods that I was now able to actually taste; there was vital victory as I successfully turned, moving to the place where  life and my friends were waiting.

It got much easier after that.  Only once in all these 50 years did I give into this lie, for I slipped into this old habit for a week, when I was desperately trying to loose a few pounds, before leaving for Paris in 1985; a greater than I brought me back to my senses, and I stopped as suddenly as I had started.  While in Dijon, France, after an exceptionally large meal, I was tested, however, to see if I really meant business.  Only by grace did I stand, not purging my grotesque meal.  Never again have I returned to this inferno; honestly, I am no longer even faintly tempted.

In this same way, though with much less drama, all my food consumption has been refined: first I receive inspiration for better habits, whether it be the exclusion of a given matter, or the addition of something new; next, I weigh and balance the suggestion, getting clear in my heart what is best for me; then, I initiate the change, which often comes with challenges at first.

I find that we are generally tested, when establishing all new behavior; such testing, however, provides proof of the pudding, for it fixes newly-won-rights indelibly.  Now I thank God, not for the attacks themselves (which aren’t of him), but for the rich strength provided in overcoming them, through our partnering with his grace.

Bless our food, bodies, and hearts always!

grinding flour with an attachment for a Kitchen Aid mixer

Atomic Muffins  Yields: 2 dozen.  Total prep time: 3/4 hr/  active prep time: 30 min/  baking time: 15 min (if you have 2 muffin pans).

1 c raisins, soaked in boiling water for 15 minutes

1/2 c oil  (Grape seed or avocado oils are best for heating to high temperatures, without producing carcinogens.)

3/4 c sugar  (Coconut sugar is ideal-see Zucchini Bread, 2017/07/24, for information on this sugar.)

2 tbsp molasses

2 lg eggs  (Organic free-range eggs are healthiest.)

1 c whole wheat pastry flour  (May grind 2/3 c organic soft winter white wheat berries to make a cup of fresh-ground flour.)

1/4 c barley or spelt flour

1 tsp salt  (Real Salt, pink salt, is so important for premium health; available in nutrition center at local supermarket.)

1/2 c powdered milk

1/2 c nutritional yeast  (Available in bulk at many stores, such as our local Winco.)

3/4 c wheat germ

1/2 c old fashioned rolled oats  (Organic in bulk is only slightly more expensive and much more nutritious.)

1/2 c sesame seeds

1/2 c sunflower seeds

3/4 c pumpkin seeds

1/2 c nuts, chopped

1 1/2 c milk  (May use an alternative milk, such as almond or hazelnut.)

Coconut Spray Oil  (Pam is available at most supermarkets; our local Winco brand, however, is far cheaper.)

  1. easy mixing of dry ingredients in a sealed storage bag

    Preheat oven to 375 degrees.

  2. If grinding fresh flour, do so now (see photo at top of recipe).
  3. Cover raisins with boiling water; set aside for 15 minutes, for them to plump up.
  4. In a large bowl, blend oil, sugar, and molasses; add eggs; beat well.
  5. In a gallon-size sealed storage bag, shake together all dry ingredients, including seeds and nuts, until well mixed (see photo above).
  6. Alternately blend dry ingredients and milk into oil mixture, using just half of each at a time, until all is incorporated.  (Note: if using fresh-ground flour, preferably let batter rest in bowl for 20 minutes before baking, as it is a coarser grind and doesn’t absorb the moisture as quickly as store-bought flour; see photo below.)
  7. bowl of batter

    Spray muffin pans with oil; spoon batter into cups; bake for 14 minutes, or until a toothpick comes out clean.  (It is best to lean on the side of under baking, so muffins remain moist.)

  8. Remove from pan and cool on waxed paper.
  9. Keep muffins in refrigerator; the freezer, however, provides even better storage, if using them over an extended period.
  10. These are indeed atomic in nutrition!

“Cuban” Holiday Rolls

holiday rolls

In the early 1980’s, when I first began catering historical foods (see Scottish Oat Scones, 2016/06/20), I was inspired by the enduring works of such renown writer/chefs as Julia Child, James Beard, Jacques Pepin, and Graham Kerr, to mention a few.  It was actually their written works, rather than those of food TV that influenced me so greatly.

My mother often sent clippings of their receipts, which were profuse in the media; this is how I got this bread recipe, which I started using, even before my own work began in 1982.

A number of these food authorities gave slightly varying directions for making Cuban bread; I don’t recall in these various versions the crucial lard or the palmetto leave, used to form the seam down the center of every authentic loaf; rather, that which I took from them is a simple bread recipe, using only 2 teaspoons each of salt and sugar plus flour, yeast, and water.

I wondered why so many of these chefs were publishing this same recipe, each utilizing specific alterations; I queried: which recipe is actually accurate?  In that period, I didn’t have the glorious bounty of facts for discovering food history, which internet provides at our fingertips today.

One chef, I don’t’ recall which one, wrote that the baking of this loaf need start in a cold oven, which I erroneously attributed to the Cuban baking process; a number of them also covered the pan with corn meal, on which a free-formed loaf was placed; hence, I employed these directions and unknowingly professed them as being national, which today I know were not genuine.  Note: you may access the real deal for Cuban bread at https://icuban.com/food/pan_cubano2.html

I learned about the legality of copyrighting recipes, when embarking on my journey as a food historian, after graduating with my Masters Degree in 1991. (My degree is in Pacific Northwest history, in which I specialized in food history, for there were no schools offering a degree in this unique subject, when I began my studies.)

Graduate school taught me the highest respect for avoiding plagiarism; thus, I sought the expertise of the leading copyright lawyer in Portland, Oregon in the early 90’s.  Dressed to the nines on a hot summer day, I stepped into one of multiple air-conditioned elevators, which took me to this qualified man’s office, with its pent-house view.  There this skilled expert patiently listened to my heart, as I fervently expressed my need for safety, in the writing and performing of my treasured work; it became apparent to me that all its colorful detail was holding him spell-bound.  Much to my relief, his directives were: ingredients in recipes may always be the same, but to be legally protected, instructions must vary.

I was exuberant, for I, like my beloved famous chefs, could take any promising receipt and produce it as my own, simply by improving on its directions, with my own culinary wisdom and historical knowledge.

My joy over this freedom was immense; there is more, however, for with his heart seemingly expanding, as was mine, the following words came out of this great lawyer’s mouth: “My services this day are free!”  God’s favor perpetually blesses our gratitude.

I don’t profess this to be Cuban bread, but rather my simple recipe for delicious holiday rolls.  Enjoy!

finished product

Holiday Rolls  Yields: 14-16 rolls or 1 loaf.  Total prep time: 2 hr & 20 min/  active prep time: 20 min/  inactive prep time: 2 hours/  baking time: 20 min.  Note: this method utilizes a food processor, producing quick, mess-free bread, the greatest!

4 cups flour  (May blend 3 cups whole wheat flour with 1 cup unbleached white flour, or better yet, grind 2 2/3 cup organic hard red spring wheat berries, to make 4 cups of fresh-ground flour.)

1 3/8-1 5/8 cups tepid water  (110-115 degrees in temperature.)

3 tsp yeast, or 1 individual packet  (Red Star Active Dry Yeast comes inexpensively in a 2-pound package at Costco; this freezes well in a sealed container for long-term use.)

2 1/4 tsp sugar

2 tsp salt  (Real Salt is important for optimum health; available in nutrition section at local supermarket.)

Coconut spray oil  (Coconut is best for quality and flavor; Pam is available in most grocery stores; our local Winco brand, however, is much cheaper.)

  1. grinding flour with Kitchen Aid attachment

    If grinding your own flour, begin to do so now (see photo).

  2. Place 1/4 cup lukewarm water-110 to 115 degrees-in a small bowl; stir in yeast and 1/4 tsp sugar.  Let sit in a warm place, until nearly double in size, about 10 minutes.  Note: frozen yeast will take somewhat longer to proof.
  3. Place flour, 2 tsp sugar, and salt in processor; blend well, stopping machine and stirring once with hard plastic spatula.
  4. When yeast is proofed, add it and 1 3/8 cup tepid water to flour mixture (with fresh-ground flour, however, only 1 1/8 cups of water is needed, as the grind is coarser).  Turn machine on and knead for 35 seconds; turn off and let dough rest for 4 minutes (see photo below of dough, after this first kneading in machine, using fresh-ground flour).  This resting period cools dough, which is essential as processing increases heat, and too much heat will kill the yeast.
  5. After pausing for 4 minutes, turn on the processor; knead dough for 35 seconds; let rest for 4 minutes.
  6. Take out and knead by hand for 5-7 minutes, or until satiny smooth.  As wet dough readily sticks to hands, rinse them as needed to facilitate easy kneading (store-bought flour is finer; therefore, it absorbs the moisture more

    dough after initial kneading in processor, using fresh-ground flour

    readily and won’t be as sticky); see photo below for dough before and after kneading by hand.  Ideally it should be firm and pliable when finished.  (Note: dough may be somewhat wet and sticky at first, but much moisture is absorbed with kneading by hand; this is especially true with fresh-ground flour.  These instructions should be foolproof, but IF needed, do the following: if dough remains quite wet and sticky, after kneading by hand for several minutes, slowly add more flour to your board as you knead; if it is too stiff to knead by hand easily, place back in processor; knead in 1 tbsp water.  If called for, repeat this step until severe stiffness is gone, it is flexible, and kneading by hand is facile, carefully resting dough so as not to overheat.  See before and after photo below.

  7. Place prepared dough in a well-oiled 13-gallon plastic bag; let rise in a warm place for 50-60 minutes, or until double; time varies depending on room temperature.  (To facilitate proofing in a cold kitchen, you may place it in a warm oven, which has been heated for 20-30 seconds only.  Be careful to only take edge off cold, as too much heat will kill the yeast.)
  8. dough before and after kneading by hand

    Spray a cookie sheet with oil.  Without punching down, form risen dough into 14-16 rolls or an oblong loaf; place on pan.  Loosely cover with a piece of plastic wrap, which has also been sprayed with oil-this keeps dough moist.

  9. Let rise until doubled, for about 50-60 minutes.  To insure oven is ready when it is time to bake, preheat it to 400 degrees, 30 minutes into rising process.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if proofing rolls in oven, be sure to remove them, before preheating.
  10. When doubled, bake rolls for 20 minutes-a loaf will take up to 30 minutes-or until bread sounds hollow when tapped on bottom.  Enjoy this excellent staff of life!

Wholesome Rosemary Bread

rosemary loaves

Of all the abundant gifts of produce that come my way, the most popular herb is rosemary; thus, I created my simple Rosemary Eggs on 2017/08/21.  Now, as bread-baking weather is upon us, I offer a wholesome loaf featuring this sweet, piney flavor.

In Culinary Artistry, Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page describe how certain food combinations best heighten pleasure in our palates.  In their pages, they list meat as the number one compliment to rosemary.  When I think of these two substances together, I immediately go to lamb, with childhood memories from my mother’s kitchen.  According to Dornenburg and Page, this herb also magnifies the savor found in suckling pigs, pork, game, steaks, veal, chicken, salmon, and oily fish (e.g., mackerel, sardines); I also find it strengthens egg dishes.

When considering uniting rosemary with a vegetable, potatoes are paramount, though our authors also couple it with onions, peas, mushrooms, spinach, and beans, among which dried and fava beans are best; those of us that prefer a vegetarian diet can benefit from this knowledge, using it liberally in our bean dishes.

I was a vegetarian for most of my twenties; moving to Tokyo changed this proclivity, for I didn’t want to offend my Japanese hosts by refusing proffered meat dishes; in part, this herbivorous preference in my youth still rests with me today, for my daily caloric intake includes mostly meatless dishes, though I am not afraid in the least to partake of animal flesh.

Rosemary, our evergreen shrub, a native to the Mediterranean, is a member of the mint family; it is a woody perennial herb that grows quickly and without much effort in temperate climates, such as that of the Pacific N.W.  Its Latin name means “dew of the sea”.

The Greeks and Romans cultivated it for both culinary and medicinal purposes; today it is still utilized in these two ways: among a number of medicinal intents, its antioxidant effects are known to reduce inflammation (rosemary was used as a remedy for gout in the 1500’s), and presently some also apply it as a homemade insect repellent (for this recipe, see homeguides.sfgate.com/homemade-rosemary-mosquito-repellent-recipe-73124.html).

The ancients made use of this herb in weddings, funerals, and ceremonies of all sorts.  In days past, brides often entwined it into head-wreaths, as it symbolized for them: fidelity, love, abiding friendship, and remembrance of the life each woman had led prior to her marriage.  Some sources claim that men of antiquity believed it improved memory, though this can only be partially substantiated.

With its sweet, lemony, slightly piney taste, rosemary is traditionally found in Mediterranean cooking-especially with the meats mentioned above-where its potent flavor is liberally applied.  Culinary Artistry states that grains also provide a powerful union with this herb; my present recipe employs this dynamic duo.

I made this rosemary bread for my church friend Charity, who was first in line this summer, supplying me with this garden treat; her strong response was that I should sell these loaves at farmer’s market.  Nevertheless, with my passion for writing, I don’t have time to regularly bake for the public, but oh how I love to cook for my friends!

References:

Andrew Dorenenburg & Karen Page, Culinary Artistry (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996), p. 205.

https://www.thespruce.com/history-of-rosemary-1807655

health.bastyr.edu/news/health-tips/2011/09/rosemary-herb-history

www.ourherbgarden.com/herb-history/rosemary.html

https://www.botonical.com/botanical/mgmh/r/rosema17.html

homeguides.sfgate.com/homemade-rosemary-mosquito-repellent-recipe-73124.html

easy chopping of  rosemary in food processor

Rosemary Bread  Yields: 1 loaf.  Total prep time: 3 hr/  active prep time: 30 min/  inactive prep time: 2 hours/  baking time: 30 min.  Note: this method produces quick, easy, mess-free bread, the greatest!

4 c flour  (Blend 3 c whole wheat flour with 1 c unbleached white flour, or better yet, for premium bread, grind 2 2/3 c organic hard red spring wheat berries to make a total 4 c of flour, see photo below.)

2/3 oz, 4 stems, or 3 tbsp chopped fresh rosemary

1 3/8-1 5/8 c tepid water  (110-115 degrees in temperature.)

1 individual packet, or 3 tsp yeast  (Red Star Active Dry Yeast comes in a 2 lb package, available inexpensively at Costco; this freezes well in a sealed container for long-term use; if using yeast from freezer, may thaw ahead of time for quicker proofing.)

6 1/4 tsp sugar

1 1/2 tsp salt  (Real Salt is important for health; available in nutrition section at local supermarket.)

Spray oil  (Coconut spray oil is best; Pam is available in most grocery stores; our local Winco brand, however, is far less expensive.)

  1. grinding flour with attachment to kitchen aid mixer

    If grinding your own flour, begin to do so now (see photo).

  2. Place 1/4 c water, lukewarm to the touch (110-115 degrees), in a small bowl; stir in yeast and 1/4 tsp sugar.  Let sit in a warm place, until double in size, about 10 minutes-this timing depends on temperature of room.  (Note: frozen yeast will take longer to rise.)
  3. Remove rosemary from stems, chop, and set aside.  This may be done in food processor; see photo at top of recipe.
  4. Place ground flour, rosemary, 2 tbsp sugar, and salt in processor.  Blend well with machine; stop and stir once, using hard plastic spatula that comes with processor.
  5. When yeast is doubled, add it and 1 3/8 c tepid water to flour mixture (if grinding fresh flour, use 1 1/8 c of water only).  Turn machine on and knead for 35 seconds; turn off and let dough rest for 4 minutes (see photo

    dough-made with fresh-ground flour-after initial kneading

    of dough, as it appears after this first kneading-dough made with store-bought flour isn’t as wet, however, as that of fresh-ground, because it has a finer grind, which absorbs more water).  The resting period cools dough, which is essential as processing increases heat; too much heat will kill the yeast.

  6. After pausing for 4 minutes, turn on the processor; knead dough for 35 more seconds; let rest for 4 minutes.
  7. Take out and knead by hand for 5-7 minutes, or until satiny smooth, minus the rosemary lumps (see photo below).  As wet dough readily sticks to hands, rinse them as needed, to facilitate easy kneading.

    dough before and after kneading by hand

    (Note: dough may be somewhat wet and sticky at first, but much moisture is absorbed with kneading by hand; this is especially true with fresh-ground flour.  IF your dough needs adjusting for some reason, do the following: if it remains quite wet and sticky, after kneading by hand for several minutes, slowly add more flour to your board as you knead; if it is too stiff to knead by hand easily, place back in processor; knead in 1 tbsp of water.  Repeat if needed, until severe stiffness is gone, it is flexible, and kneading by hand is facile, carefully resting dough so as not to overheat.  Ideally you want firm, supple dough, which is smooth to the touch and not sticky, when finished.)

  8. Place prepared dough in a well-oiled 13 gallon plastic bag; let rise in a warm place for 50-60 minutes, or until double.  (To facilitate proofing in a cold kitchen, may warm oven for 20-30 seconds only; be careful to only warm slightly, just taking edge off cold, as too much heat will kill the yeast.)
  9. Spray a bread pan with oil, preferably coconut spray oil; punch down doubled dough, forming it into a loaf; place in pan; use a piece of plastic wrap, which has also been sprayed, to loosely cover dough-this keeps it moist.
  10. Let rise until double for 50-60 minutes, depending on room temperature.  About 30 minutes into rising process, preheat oven to 400 degrees, to insure oven is ready when it is time to bake.  (IMPORTANT: if proofing loaf in oven, be sure to remove it, before turning oven on.)
  11. When double, bake for around 30 minutes, or until bread sounds hollow when tapped on bottom.  (Ovens vary slightly in temperature; my oven takes 27 minutes to bake a perfect loaf.)  Enjoy this excellent staff of life!