Lentils, for an Emergency

a dish of lentils

The staple of lentils is a blessing; here we look at the easiest way to prepare them, as well as details about their history, makeup, and health benefits.  This basic recipe, having only two ingredients, evolved due to recent inquiries for a simple means to cook lentils, for times such as now; this method of preparation brings out flavor and nutrition.

Historical Background of Lentils

Lentils, Lens culinaris, are probably the oldest cultivated legume; they are mentioned several times in the Old Testament, with the first time being in Genesis, when Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a “pottage of lentiles”.  Encyclopedia Britannica surmises that the lentils Jacob prepared were probably red Egyptian lentils. 1

Lentils are native to Southwest Asia; they are now a common food throughout Europe, Asia, and North Africa, with their greatest production being in India and Turkey (Canada is a distant third).  2

In North America, lentils are produced in the Pacific Northwest, eastern Washington, northern Idaho, and up into western Canada.  Since the 1930’s, they have been grown as a rotation crop with wheat, with most of the lentils being exported, though in recent times, Americans are consuming them more.  3

Their shape inspired the 17th century coinage of the word “lens”-the Latin word for lentil-which describes the lentil-shaped, double convex, piece of glass.  4

Two Groups of Lentils: Their Colors and Composition

There are two groups of lentils: the most common being the varieties with flat and large seeds-5 mm or more across. The second group consists of varieties with small, more rounded seeds that are finer-textured; included in this latter group are the prized green French lentille du Puy, the black beluga, and the green Spanish pardina.  The seed coats of these varieties may be brown, red, black, and green; most have yellow cotyledons, though some are green or red.  Both cooking and age can turn green seed coats brown.  The composition of dry lentils is 14% water, 25% protein, 60% carbohydrate, and 1% oil.  5

Health Benefits of Lentils

Some hold that lentils protect against heart disease, dementia, cancer, and other chronic illnesses.  6

They also prove to be a good source of protein, vitamin B, iron, phosphorus, and dietary fiber, but they can cause gas.  7

How Intestinal Gas is Created

What to do with the problem of flatulence, for which legumes are known?   Note: lentils seemingly cause little gas for some, while soy, navy, and lima beans are the worst offenders.  8

Our intestines produce about a quart of a mixture of gases a day, due to the growth and metabolism of our resident bacteria.  Many legumes cause a sudden increase in this bacterial activity-bringing about gas production-a few hours after they are consumed.  This is due to their containing large amounts of short-chained carbohydrates, which human digestive enzymes cannot convert into  sugars that can be absorbed; thus, these carbohydrates leave the upper small intestine unchanged.  When they reach the lower intestine, they are fermented; the resident bacteria population performs its job; gas results.  9

The ineffective metabolism of troublesome carbohydrates into digestible single sugars produces gas.  One type of carbohydrate causing this gas issue is the oligosaccharides, molecules consisting of only three, four, or five sugar molecules linked together in an unusual way (for more on oligosaccharides, see Great Keto Citrus Cookies).  Cell-wall cements, however, may be a more prominent cause for this problem of gas, as they produce just as much carbon dioxide and hydrogen as the oligosaccharides, and beans generally have about twice as much of these carbohydrates, as they do oligosaccharides.  10

Proposed Remedies for Preventing Gas

Of the two proposed remedies to help prevent gas, the long cooking of legumes is better than that of leaching off these carbohydrates with water (boiling the legumes briefly, letting them stand in this water for an hour, and then discarding the water); this latter method does get rid of most of the water-soluble oligosaccharides, but it also removes significant amounts of water-soluble vitamins, minerals, simple sugars, and seed-coat pigments (in other words, it strips the food of nutrients, flavor, color, and antioxidants).  On the other hand, simple, prolonged cooking helps to eventually break down the oligosaccharides and the cell-wall cements into digestible single sugars; this is the method used in the lentil recipe below.  11

Integrative medicine physician Irina Todorov, MD. states that if your increasing bean consumption, to obtain higher levels of dietary fiber, resultant gas levels typically return to normal once legumes are consumed regularly.  12

Garlic is used in this receipt.  It, however, is possible to replace this with onions, herbs, or other vegetables of your choice; feel free to experiment.  Finally, I like to add a splash of olive or sesame oil to my dish of hot lentils, for nutrition and flavor.

Lesson Applied

These unprecedented times are producing a shaking; those things-things made-that can be shaken will be removed, so only the unshakable and eternal will remain.  13

It appears in the natural that all is slowed down presently; underneath the surface, there, however, is a “quick cooking” of our lives going on, both publicly and personally.

This lentil legume is flat and thin, with a thin seed coat; thus, cooking water need only penetrate a millimeter or two from each side.  That makes for a quicker cooking process than with any other bean-30 to 45 minutes.

Covid-19 can produce two different results: it may be getting under our skin, frying us so to speak, or preferably it is producing a great softening of heart, which is slow and gentle.  For the latter to transpire, our “seed coat” requires a protective shield.  The word of God gives such provision, for it states:

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.  For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.”  14

We want the unprofitable within us to be shaken off, so only the pure and stable will remain.  With everything changing so rapidly, it is advantageous more than ever, to look to the eternal.

As boiling water softens lentils in less than an hour, we too have had deep change transpiring in short order, with this boiling of our beings.  May this be a time of victorious overcoming-a time of thinking and responding competently, with godly wisdom.  Thus, we make right decisions in all that challenges.

Relationship with Jesus provides this.  Bless you, my readers!  May the extremely simple recipe below help you.

References:

  1. The Holy Bible, KJV, Genesis 25: 30, 34 and https://www.britannica.com/plant/lentil-plant
  2. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 492.
  3. https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/lentils/how-to-grow-lentils.htm
  4. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 492.
  5. , pp. 489, 492.
  6. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/the-musical-fruit-what-you-should-know-about-beans-and-gas/
  7. https://www.britannica.com/plant/lentil-plant
  8. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), p. 486
  9. Ibid.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid., pp. 486, 487.
  12. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/the-musical-fruit-what-you-should-know-about-beans-and-gas/
  13. See Hebrews 12: 26-29 in the Holy Bible, KJV.
  14. The Holy Bible, KJV, John 3:16, 17.

finished product

Lentils for an Emergency Food  Yields: 8 servings.  Active prep time: 10 min/  Cooking time: 30-45 min.

2 c lentils

8 c water, preferably distilled

1 whole bulb of fresh garlic, cloves peeled and left whole  (May substitute 4 cubes frozen garlic from Trader Joe’s, or 3-4 tbsp garlic from a jar; instead of the garlic, may substitute an onion, herbs, or vegetables of your choice.)

Salt to taste, be sure to add only after lentils are cooked  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt are important for optimum health; an inexpensive, fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco.)

Optional: a splash of olive or sesame oil

  1. large garlic cloves cut in half

    Place lentils and water in a stockpot; cover and bring to a boil over med/high heat. If possible, use distilled water, which is highly beneficial to our bodies (for more information, see Vichy Carrots.)

  2. pot of lentils and garlic prepped for cooking

    Meanwhile peel garlic, cutting large cloves in half. Add to lentils.  (See above photo.)  DO NOT ADD SALT WHILE COOKING, as this prohibits the softening of legumes.

  3. Lower heat to medium, cook uncovered for 30-45 minutes, or until lentils are soft and quite thick; stir occasionally. (I prefer the lentils thick, so they have the substance of an entry, rather than a soup, but you may choose more of a soup texture.)
  4. Salt to taste and optionally serve with a splash of olive or sesame oil, for taste and nutrition. This keeps well in refrigerator for a week, or at room temperature for several days, if there is a power outage.

Sprouted Three Bean Dip

sprouted three bean dip w/ organic Que Pasa chips

Let’s examine the beautiful health benefits of sprouting.  This sprouted three bean dip was inspired, by the life-preserving works of my sister Maureen’s prayer partner Jeanette, in the early 2000’s.

This friend was a cancer victim with four months to live, when she chose non-traditional treatment, a juice fast at a health center.  After healing was complete, Jeanette began to teach powerful juice fasting herself, elaborating on its restorative values with raw, sprouted foods.  Together these produce a perfect ph balance in our systems, in which cancer can’t survive.  This woman is now world renown for treating the terminally ill.

Sprouting magnifies the nutritional qualities of grains, legumes, seeds, and nuts.  For instance, almonds soaked for 24 hours increase in food value eleven times.  Quinoa, a pseudo-cereal, which fits nicely between grains and legumes, is also dramatically changed; this complete protein, which grows quickly in one to two days, is high in manganese, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, fiber, folate, zinc, vitamin E, and antioxidants; my instructions for germinating quinoa can be found in Sprouted Quinoa and Yam Salad (2016/09/05).  Beans, however, take about three days for the enzymes to come alive; live beans are also a good source of protein, as well as B and C vitamins.

Maureen learned much about nutrition from her friend and subsequently passed it on to me.  My sister creatively applied her sprouting method to cooked three-bean dip (Jeanette, however, never cooks anything).  Note that boiling these beans diminishes their life; thus, they are no longer considered a live food, but germination still holds some benefits here even with the heating.

On the other hand, sprouting can encourage bacteria to grow, while high heat kills these microorganisms; boiling also deactivates irritating substances that may be found in raw sprouts; therefore, people with weak immune systems should be careful about eating sprouted foods.  Indulge as your body dictates, always employing sterile conditions while undertaking this technique.

Koreans have long employed stewing in making their common side dish known as kongnamul; in this popular nourishment, the sprouted soybeans have been cooked thoroughly and seasoned with fish sauce, garlic, green onions, sesame seeds, sesame oil, and hot pepper flakes.  This refreshing accompaniment is almost always present at every meal in this culture; for an authentic recipe, go to http://www.maangchi.com/recipe/kongnamul-muchim

My dip will keep for many weeks in the refrigerator-these instructions provide three and a half quarts of product, two of which I freeze.  For me, this receipt’s importance is found not only in its enzymatic quality-though it decreases some with boiling and freezing-but more so in the ease it provides, of having a dynamite hors d’ouvres on hand always.  It’s good!

finished product

Sprouted Three Bean Dip Yields: 3 1/2 qt (ideal for freezing).  Total prep time: 3-4 days-for soaking beans-plus 1 3/4 hr to prepare/  active prep time: 40 min/  cooking time: 1 1/4 hr.

3 c pinto beans

1 c red beans

1 c black beans

1 tbsp salt  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; a fine grind Himalayan salt is available for $4.95/5 lb at Costco.)

2/3 c garlic cloves, or 2 med/large bulbs  (This produces a moderately pungent garlic flavor; may adjust amount for a weaker/stronger garlic taste.)

1 c cold-pressed, extra virgin olive oil

1 c salsa  (Trader Joe’s makes a good and reasonably priced Salsa Authentica.)

2 tsp cumin, or to taste

4-1-qt empty, yogurt or cottage cheese containers, sterilized

  1. black beans after sprouting for 2 days

    Began soaking beans 3-4 days ahead of time: place the pinto and red beans together in a large stock pot; check for stones; then, cover generously with water.  Next place black beans in a 3-qt saucepan, covering well with water, after checking for stones,  (Black beans cook faster; thus, they need to be prepared separately.)  Note: if beans are old, they will not sprout.

  2. Let soak for 12 hours; then, rinse well and drain.  Cover with wet paper towel and begin the sprouting process, which takes 2-3 days.  Be sure to rinse beans extra well every 8-12 hours, always covering with wet paper towel.
  3. red and pinto beans after sprouting for 2 days

    It is important that the paper towel remains wet; thus, keep a spray bottle of water handy and spray intermittently.  Sprouts will be formed in 2 days, but leaving them for 3 days is even better (be sure to rinse frequently the last day to keep water clear).  See both photos.

  4. When sprouts have grown, rinse beans well again, and cover amply with fresh water.  Cook black beans over medium heat until soft for about 45 minutes.  Bring pinto/red beans to a boil, over med/high heat, covered; then, uncover and cook until beans are soft (this takes a total of about 1 1/4 hour).  Be sure to stir occasionally, and replenish water if needed.  DO NOT ADD SALT WHILE COOKING, THIS INHIBITS BEANS FROM SOFTENING.
  5. measuring chopped garlic

    Peel garlic while beans are cooking; cut cloves in halves or thirds, filling a 2/3 c measuring cup for a moderately spicy dip (1 c for strong garlic flavor or 1/2 c for weak).  Place in a dry food processor; chop fine, stopping and scraping down sides.  Pack down chopped garlic in a 1/2 c measuring cup; split in half with a knife-see photo-using 1/4 c for each of the two batches you are processing.  Set aside.  (Dip will taste strongly of garlic at first, but this flavor mellows greatly after several days.)

  6. Remove the black beans from heat when they are soft, immediately add 1 tsp salt to hot bean broth.  Let beans soak in broth for 15 minutes, drain extra well, set aside.  (This process salts the bean dip evenly.)
  7. Repeat step 4 with the pinto/red beans when finished cooking; add 2 tsp, however, of salt to this mixture.  Drain well.
  8. When beans are thus prepared, process the first of two batches by placing half the pinto/red beans (approximately 4 1/4 c), half the black beans (approximately 1 1/2 c), half the garlic, 1/2 c oil, 1/2 c salsa, and 1 tsp of cumin in the food processor.  Turn on and puree, mixing thoroughly; press the “dough” button on processor briefly, as it agitates the mass with different motions than those of regular processing.  In this way the bean dip is blended well.  See photo of finished product at top of recipe.
  9. Place in sterilized containers and repeat step 7 with the last of the beans.
  10. This keeps in refrigerator for many weeks and freezes well; thus, it is great for long-term use.

Avocado, Bean, and Corn Salad

avocado, bean, and corn salad

My church celebrated its 22nd anniversary this past summer with our annual picnic, which we always associate with incredible food; there are two men in our congregation that smoke tri-tip for this gala.  (They stay up all night smoking our Thanksgiving turkeys as well, which is by far the best turkey I have ever experienced.)  This year our outdoor celebration also boasted of fried chicken, not to be outdone by everyone’s glorious side-dish contributions.

Church gatherings are famous for their magnificent spreads; our congregation is no exception, for we have a host of great cooks, even though our body is small.  Indeed, we eat well!

I always make the following bean salad for our anniversary; it is not only quick, but keeps well in the sun.  May you find this a great dish for potlucks also.

Normally I don’t use many canned goods in my food preparations; they, however, facilitate the ease of this excellent recipe.  The history of canning is of great interest to me.  It began with a Nicolas Appert, a creative Frenchman with ordained skills-promised attributes we all get to exercise.

Our genius started out as a brewer; then, became a steward for the aristocracy; finally, he ended up as a confectioner during the Napoleonic era.  When France and Britain were at war in 1795, Napoleon, seeking a way to best preserve food for his army, offered 12,000 francs to the winner of a contest for such a discovery.  As a confectioner, Appert’s mind had already been developing such a solution, for he had been pursuing the foremost means in lengthening the shelf-life of fruits, by improving on the traditional candying and drying processes.  This formal opportunity brought his ideas to fullness; thus, he won the prize with his method in which he preserved fruits, vegetables, meats, eggs, partridges, chestnuts, grape must, even the vegetable truffles.  Our originator partially cooked the foods, before placing them in wide-mouth bottles; then, by corking and boiling the bottles in a water bath, he expelled the damaging air.  This technique of food preservation has remained in tact throughout the centuries.  1

Nevertheless, this hero unfortunately died a pauper, for by accepting the prize he lost the chance to patent his design.  (As an aside, I speak with the authority given me, in Jesus Christ’s name: “Enemy of our souls, you can steal none of our rewards!”)  2

In 1810, Appert published a book detailing his canning procedure, which the award had prohibited him from patenting; just months later, a patent using his method for preserving foods surfaced in England.  There, however, his corked glass container became a more durable, tin-coated iron canister, which came with instructions for opening with a chisel and hammer.  3

By 1849, this technology for food preservation improved with machine-made, can tops and bottoms.  Prior to this, two skilled workers produced 120 cans a day; now two people could daily make 1500 cans, and these machine-operators were unskilled at that.  4

These tin cans inspired what was the slow advent of can openers, an invention that remained quite unsatisfactory from its first appearance in 1855, until our modern device appeared in the 1980’s; this latter, a side-opening implement, uses two wheels in tandem, one rotating, the other serrated, removing the lid, while leaving no sharp edges.  These days we take this relatively new, inexpensive tool for granted; as a result of the sped of modern technology, often even this is not required, for now many cans come with pop-tops.  5

Today can-making is a major economic force; in the United States alone, more than 130 billion cans are generated yearly, making this an eight billion dollar industry.  6  The majority-about four times more-of these canned goods are fizzy drinks, such as sodas and beer, rather than food.  7

Hardcore cooks can soak and boil dried beans for my salad; nevertheless most of us choose to thank Nicolas Appert, for his obedience to press in with his quick mind.  As a result, we have canned beans and corn for this blessed recipe.

  1. Bee Wilson, Consider the Fork (New York: Basic Books, 2012), pp. 219-221.
  2. Ibid., p. 220.
  3. Ibid., p. 221.
  4. James Trager, The Food Chronology (New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1995), p. 242
  5. Bee Wilson, Consider the Fork (New York: Basic Books, 2012), pp. 221, 221.
  6. www.cancentral.com/can-stats/history-of-the-can
  7. Bee Wilson, Consider the Fork (New York: Basic Books, 2012) , p. 223.

assembling salad using garlic peeler

Avocado, Bean, and Corn Salad  Yields: about 1 1/2 quarts.  Total prep time: 25 min.  Note: this salad is spicy; for a milder version,  use less garlic and Jalapeno peppers; spiciness always lessens in intensity after a day of refrigeration; it is best to make this ahead for flavors to meld.

2-15 ounce cans of beans, drained  (Simple Truth Organic Tri-Bean Blend is ideal; available inexpensively at our local Fred Meyer-Kroger-stores.)

1-15 ounce can of sweet corn  (Trader Joe’s brand is excellent.)

1/2 cup chopped red or sweet onion  (For easy chopping, see step 2.)

5 large cloves of fresh garlic, or to taste, minced coarsely  (This amount provides a fair amount of bite; adjust for desired garlic flavor.)

chopping onion the easy way

2 Jalapeno peppers, or to taste, minced

1/2 cup salsa  (Trader Joe’s Salsa Autentica is ideal.)

1 tsp salt, or to taste  (Real Salt is important for health; available in health section at local supermarket.)

1/2 tsp fresh ground pepper, or to taste

2 small avocados, chopped

  1. Drain beans and corn in a colander, while proceeding to next step.
  2. For easy chopping, with root in tact, score a large onion with slices across top, cutting 2/3’s of the way down into it; turn onion and cut slices in opposite direction; shave pieces off end (see above photo); place in a large bowl.
  3. coarse grind of garlic

    For exceptional efficiency, peel garlic with a green, rubber garlic peeler from Bed, Bath, and Beyond (see this in photo at beginning of recipe).  May chop cloves coarsely with a sharp knife, or for quick preparation, place in a food processor, pressing pulse button repeatedly; stop and scrape down sides once; do not over chop, as a coarse grind adds bite to salad (see photo); place in bowl with onions.

  4. Cut Jalapeno peppers in half length-wise, scoop out seeds with a spoon, mince fine, and add to bowl (see photo below).  When finished, be sure to wash hands thoroughly before touching eyes.
  5. Stir salsa, salt, and pepper into onions/Jalapeno peppers.
  6. Gently blend beans and corn into this mixture; do not over mix, as this will make the beans mushy.  If making ahead, refrigerate at this point.
  7. mincing Jalapeno peppers

    Before serving, chop avocados, and carefully fold into bean mixture.  Serve with pleasure.

Tortellini Sausage Soup and Bone Broth

pot of tortellini soup

I first had this soup in the pleasing home of a beloved friend six years ago. Her husband was dying of cancer; I was there ministering to them and they to me, for she was letting me do my laundry, while I helped to cook and clean.  We also had a time of deep prayer, as we cried out for healing grace.

My friend showed me how to make this tortellini soup amidst cleaning and laundry; it nourished our bodies and souls then especially, because of the trauma.  Here I have elaborated on this recipe, bringing yet more vitality, with the most important change being homemade bone broth. How it generates length of days!

Bone broth is a power food.  Eight ounces of chicken stock has only one gram of protein, while bone broth has nine grams per cup!  Further, it impacts our health in numerous ways.  Dr. Axe in Food is Medicine, lists its benefits as: aiding digestion, overcoming food intolerances, boosting the immune system, improving joint pain, and reducing cellulite.  1

I encourage you to take advantage of leftover bones; freeze chicken carcasses, until you have three; then, make this super stock with the easy guidelines listed below.

This friend’s other-half died shortly after this.  His funeral was a celebration of goodness and life; it was my favorite funeral ever, for God’s love was there.  I, however, experienced a mingling of confusion admits the joy: why death?

I have since learned the answer to this.  It is never our Father’s will that anyone die before fullness of age.  The Bible teaches us precisely how to avoid all ruin; it warns us that we are destroyed by lack of knowledge.  Its careful directions educate us on how to avoid destruction, with exacting instructions for receiving abundant life, as well.

Back then, my friends and I didn’t have enough wisdom to overcome death’s fierce attack.  Today I can say that I have the knowledge to overcome anything, in Jesus Christ’s name; this is solely because of the truth I have learned from the word of God.  Now I am strong and can stand in the face of all adversity, and I do just that!

My most prized wedding took place months after this favored funeral.  The size of this celebration of matrimony was extremely small, just a handful of attenders, but God was present!  The Spirit spoke to my heart in every fine detail of this ceremony: the vows spoken, the songs sung, the exquisite food, the fond fellowship were all an expression of vibrant blessing.

I experienced jubilee this day, for at the time, I thought there is redemption of the loss of my friend with this wealthy wedding, which followed the holy funeral.  Nevertheless this recovery was in mere seed-form then, as all truth starts.

Now there is fullness of this hope, for I know that we no longer have to be victims of destruction, as we have authority over the enemy of our souls.  This I learned at Abundant Life Family Church; I invite you to listen to teachings at alfc.net.

Bon appetit!

References:

  1. https://draxe.com/the-healing-power-of-bone-broth-for-digestion-arthritis-and-cellulite/
Tortellini soup

tortellini soup

Tortellini Sausage Soup  Yields: 2 qt.  Total prep time for soup, if bone broth is prepared ahead: 1 hr/ active prep time: 30 min/ cooking time: 30 min.  Note: may substitute packaged chicken broth.

1 tbsp oil  (Coconut or avocado oil is best; olive oil is carcinogenic when heated to high temperatures.)

1 med/large onion, chopped

1 lg carrot, cut diagonally in 1/4″ slices

1 stalk celery, sliced at a diagonal in small pieces

10-14 oz natural sausage, sliced diagonally  (A spicy sausage is preferable.)

scant 1/2 tsp Chinese Five Spice

scant 1/2 tsp dried crushed red pepper, or to taste

1 1/2 qt bone broth, recipe below  (You may substitute 1-liter box of chicken broth plus 1-15 oz can.)

6 oz frozen spinach or kale  (Organic frozen kale is available in health section at our local Fred Meyer-Kroger-store.)

1-15 oz can  kidney beans, or beans of your choice  (Organic beans are only slightly more expensive.)

1 c dried cheese or pesto-filled tortellini  (Available at Trader Joe’s.)

1 tsp salt, or to taste  (Himalayan, pink, or Real Salt is critical for optimum health; an inexpensive fine grind Himalayan salt is available at Costco.)

1 1/2 tsp Better Than Bouillon-chicken flavor-or to taste

1 c grated or shaved Parmesan cheese

  1. sweating onions

    Heat oil in a stock pot over medium heat; when a piece of onion sizzles in hot oil, add the rest and sweat, or cook until translucent (see photo).

  2. Add carrot, celery, and sausage; cook covered for a total of 10 minutes, stirring occasionally.
  3. Blend in Chinese Five Spice and red pepper; cover and cook 2-3 more minutes, stirring once midway.
  4. Stir in broth (see recipe below), cover, and bring to a boil over med/high heat.
  5. Mix in spinach or kale, tortellini, and drained beans; cover and bring to a second boil.
  6. Lower heat to medium, uncover, and cook for 10-15 minutes, or until greens are limp and pasta is soft.
  7. Add salt and Better Than Bouillon; adjust seasonings to taste.
  8. Serve topped with Parmesan cheese.

Bone Broth  Yields: about 3 qt.  Total prep time: your choice of 13-25 hrs/ active prep time: 15min/ inactive prep time: 30 min/  cooking time: 12-24 hrs, longer cooking extracts more nutrients.  (Note: may be made ahead and frozen in quart-size containers.)

1/2 c raw apple cider vinegar (Raw cider vinegar is most cost efficient at Trader Joe’s.)

3 leftover chicken carcasses, or 1 lg turkey carcass, broken in pieces  (May freeze individual carcasses until ready to use.)

2 lg yellow onions, quartered

4 celery ribs with leaves, cleaned and chopped in 2″ pieces

4 lg carrots, cleaned, skin scraped off, and chopped in chunks

8 lg cloves of garlic

  1. Fill an oven-proof stock pot one-third full of water, stir in vinegar, place poultry carcasses in water-break the bones to fit compactly in pot.  Add more water to cover carcasses and stir well.  Let sit 30 minutes (the vinegar draws out the nutrients from the bone marrow).
  2. Spray vegetables, except garlic and onions, with a safe, inexpensive, effective vegetable spray made by combining 97% distilled white vinegar with 3% hydrogen peroxide.  Let sit for 3 minutes; then, rinse well.  Scrape carrots and cut all vegetables; set aside.
  3. Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
  4. After 30 minutes, add vegetables to pot (be sure all is covered with water) and place it in oven.  Bake 1 hour at 350 degrees.
  5. Turn temperature down to 300 degrees; cook for a total of 12 to 24 hours-longer periods produce more nutrition, though 12 hours is still quite good.
  6. Add more water periodically, if needed; don’t, however, add any water the last 12 hours of cooking-this will aid in reducing broth, for freezing compactly.
  7. Strain when done.  Note: you may reduce to 2 qt liquid, for freezing compactly in quart-size containers, adding 1/2 qt of water to each, to restore to 1 1/2 qt of bone broth, for use in this tortellini soup recipe.

Carrots au Beurre

Carrots-au-beurre

carrots au beurre

This three-part 19th century dinner, which started last week (see Chicken a l’Oignon and Lemon Meringues a la Ude), reflects the new Classic French cuisine.  This era in culinary history became popular as the Napoleonic age followed the French Revolution.  Then self-made men, following the example of Napoleon, rose in status and wealth.  They had to learn the ways of entertaining, or how to be amphitryons (hosts).

Cook books of the time reflected this non-aristocratic class’ needs, by giving such directions.  A forty-year lapse in the publication of cooking instructions, of any sort, existed prior to the beginning of this period.  One important recipe book, with the dawning of this new day, was Le Cuisinier, by A. Viard; it was published during the entire nineteenth century; its name, however, changed with each fresh political upheaval.

First printed in 1806, Le Cuisinier Imperial was named after the Emperor who loved classicism; Napoleon’s strong passion gave this new style of cooking its name Classic French cuisine.

The book’s title changed to Le Cuisinier Royal, when Louis XVIII became king in 1814.  Other name conversions reflected the politics of the century: it became Le Cuisinier National, at the time Louis Napoleon was elected President of the Republic; then, it went back to employing “Imperial”, when this man declared himself Emperor Napoleon III in 1852.  The cook book was known by Le Cuisinier National once again, when France became a republic in 1871; it has remained such; thus, this recipe for buttered carrots, taken from these pages, dates back two centuries.

In 1964, Esther Aresty documented the history of European and American cuisine in her account The Delectable Past, from which I got my above information. Here she improved on this delicious recipe from Le Cuisinier by pureeing this vegetable in a food mill.  I have augmented her outstanding method with easy, modernized, 21st century steps, utilizing a food processor.

You’ll be immensely pleased with this memorable dish; a comfort food of all comfort foods!

Carrots au Beurre  Adapted from a recipe in Esther B. Aresty’s  The Delectable Past (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964).  Yields 4 servings.  Total prep time: 50 min./  active prep time: 20 min./  cooking time: 45 min.   Note: may make this the day before, as flavors are better the second day; double recipe for great leftovers.

½ cup pecan pieces

1 pound carrots  (Organic  carrots are very inexpensive.)

2 cups green beans  (Use either fresh or frozen;  excellent French-cut beans are available in Trader Joe’s freezer.)

1/4 cup whipping cream

2 tbsp butter

1 tsp fresh ground nutmeg, or to taste

1/2 tsp salt, or to taste  (Real Salt is best, available in health section of local supermarket.)

1/4 tsp pepper, or to taste

Butter or coconut spray  (Needed for oiling pan, if making ahead and refrigerating.)

  1. Preheat oven to 265 degrees. Roast pecans on a small cookie sheet for about 40 minutes, or until light brown, when piece is broken; set aside.
  2. Spray carrots with 97% distilled white vinegar mixed with 3% hydrogen peroxide, an inexpensive effective produce spray; let sit three minutes; rinse thoroughly; scrape with a sharp knife (scraping, as opposed to peeling, saves the vitamins which are just under the skin).  Cut into 1 inch pieces; if the carrot piece is thick, cut it in half.
  3. Cover cut vegetable with water in a medium saucepan, bring to a boil over medium/high heat, lower heat to medium, and cook until soft.
  4. Meantime steam green beans in a medium saucepan.  (If you are making carrots ahead, prepare green beans during last half hour of  the reheating of carrot dish in oven.)
  5. Place the hot, drained, soft carrots in a food processor; add cream, butter, nutmeg, salt, and pepper; blend until carrots are a smooth mixture, stopping once to scrape down sides.  Adjust seasonings to taste.  (IF preparing ahead, butter a baking dish large enough to hold recipe; then, place pureed vegetable in it; cover well with tin foil; refrigerate; reheat in 350 degree oven 1 1/2 hours before serving.)
  6. Place hot pureed carrots in the center of a vegetable platter, surround with green beans, and top with roasted pecans.