Egg Rice

Indian egg rice is full of flavor from the cloves, cinnamon, and pepper in it; onion sauteed in lots of butter, or ghee, also adds to its taste. Information on varieties of rice, its health benefits, and my recipe for egg rice are given below.

Background of Rice

Rice has a colorful history; it is thought that its domestication dates back perhaps to 5000 BC in South China, which was an independent country at the time.  It began to be cultivated in India’s Ganges Delta, from about  2000 BC forward. 1  For more details on its history, see Riso Pilaff (Italian Braised Rice).

Oryza sativa and Its Two Subspecies

There are thought to be more than 100,000 varieties of rice in the world.  Its Latin name is Oryza sativa, which has two traditionally recognized subspecies.  The first is Indica -generally grown in the lowland tropics and subtropics, having a lot of amylose starch and a long, firm grain, which needs more water and time to cook. The second is Japonica, which can be found in temperate climates such as Japan, Korea, Italy, California, and in the tropics (such as Indonesia and the Philippines, where these rices are sometimes known as javanicas).  Japonicas have much less amylose starch and produces a shorter, stickier grain.  Some rice varieties fall in between these two subspecies, but the more amylose starch in the variety, the more the rice will retain its structure; thus, more water, time, and heat are needed to cook the rice. 2

Common Categories of Rice

There are common categories of rice: long-grain, medium-grain, short-grain, and sticky rice, along with the two distinctive categories of aromatic and pigmented rices.  I generally cook with brown basmati rice from India, which is one rice in the distinctive category of aromatic rices; among other well-known aromatic rices are Thai jasmine and U.S. Della.  The other distinctive rice group is that of special pigmented rices, in which the bran layer produces different colors-there is red, black, and purple rice.3

Most Chinese, Indian, and U.S. rice is long-grain rice.  This category of rice has a relatively high proportion of amylose at 22%. (Amylose is one of the two types of carbohydrates found in rice; the other type being amylopectin, which is found in sticky rice.)  With the high proportions of amylose, long-grain requires the most water for cooking (water to rice by volume is 1.4 to 1).  These long-grained Indicas are an elongated shape, with a length which is 4 to 5 times its width.  When cooked they produce separate grains, which are firm when cooled and hard when chilled.4  

Medium-grain and short-grained japonicas are used in Italian risottos and Spanish paella; Medium-grain rices have a 15-17% amylose content; thus, they need less cooking water, and they produce tender grains that cling to each other.  Short-grain rice is nearly the same in width as it is in length, and it is otherwise similar to medium-grain rice. These short-and medium-grain japonica rices are heavily used in north China, Japan, and Korea.5

Sticky rice, a short-grain rice, is also known as waxy, glutenous, or sweet rice, though it is not sweet, but often used in sweet Asian dishes.  It has a starch that is practically all amylopectin; thus, it requires the least water for cooking (water to rice by volume is 0.8 to 1).  It is very clingy when cooked and easily disintegrates in boiling water; for this reason, it is often soaked and steamed.  It is widely used in Laos and northern Thailand, often in sweet dishes, though it is not sweet in itself..6

Brown Rice and Its Health Benefits

Brown rice is any of the long-grain, medium-grain, or aromatic rices above, which are left unmilled,; thus, the bran, germ, and aleurone layers are kept intact.  In this form, rice takes two to three times longer to cook than its polished counterparts of the same variety.  It has a chewy texture and nutty aroma.  White rice is brown rice, with the bran layer polished away, leaving it with only one-third of the fiber.7

The bran layer in brown rice contains antioxidants, in the form of three phenolics, which are also present in the germ.  Many of these are lost, when the bran layer is stripped away in the making of white rice. When they are present, they can aid in reducing free radicals from attacking the cells; thus, they may help to prevent cancer.  Also, fiber found in the bran layer may lower your cholesterol, which is believed to reduce the chance of heart disease and stroke.8

Brown rice can aid in digestion, because it is high in insoluble fiber, which doesn’t break down in the digestive tract; thus, it adds bulk to stools and therefore may produce regular bowel movements.  Along with this, the fiber in rice makes one feel full; thus, it can help in weight control.9

Brown Rice May Help with Diabetes

Brown rice has a glycemic index of 64, as opposed to that of white rice, which is 55; therefore, brown rice may be helpful with managing diabetes. It is thought that fiber found in brown rice doesn’t raise blood sugar levels, but rather it helps to slow down the absorption of its sugars; thus, it may be beneficial in stabilizing blood sugar.10 It is believed that long-grain rice, being higher in amylose, is better for keeping blood sugar levels from spiking. 11

Brown Rice-an Insoluble Fiber

Soluble fiber found  in simple carbohydrates, ferments in the stomach, causing bloating and gas.  This soluble fiber is digested by bacteria, when it passes into the large intestine, and this releases gases which cause flatulence.  (On the other hand, brown rice actually feeds the good bacteria in our GI tract!12)

Insoluble fiber in complex carbs, such as brown rice, remain undigested as they pass through the GI tract; thus, constipation and gas may form.  White rice is a simple carbohydrate, which the body breaks down quickly, as opposed to complex carbohydrates that are digested much slower.  Too many refined carbohydrates can lead to inflammation and bloating.  In this way, the complex carbohydrate, brown rice, is a healthy choice, especially if it is replacing white rice.13

Enjoy the simple recipe for egg rice below.

References

  1. Reay Tannahill, Food in History (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1968, 1973), pp. 40,113.
  2. Harold McGee, On Food and Cooking (New York: Scribner, 1984, 2004), pp. 472, 473.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. https://www.webmd.com/diet/health-benefits-rice#1
  9. Ibid.
  10. https://draxe.com/nutrition/insoluble-fiber/ 
  11. Ibid.
  12. https://www.eatthis.com/news-what-happens-body-eat-rice/  
  13. https://draxe.com/nutrition/insoluble-fiber/

Egg Rice Recipe Yields: 8 servings. Total prep time: 40 min/ Active prep time: 10 min. Note: add chicken and green peas for an entree.

1 1/2 c rice (Indian basmati brown rice works well; available at Trader Joe’s.)

1 med yellow onion

4 tbsp butter or ghee  (Get easy, quick directions for making ghee at Asparagus.)

4 whole cloves

1/4 tsp cinnamon

1 1/2 tsp salt

1/4 tsp freshly ground pepper

4 lg eggs, beaten

  1. In a saucepan, with a tight-fitting lid, bring 3 c water to a boil.  Before boiling, add to water: cloves, cinnamon, salt, and pepper.  See photo.
  2. When water is boiling, add 1 1/2 c rice and bring to a second boil.  Cover and reduce heat to simmer rice. Cook for 35 minutes, or until water is absorbed. Remove from heat, take out cloves, which will be on top, and fluff rice with a fork.
  3. Meanwhile, dice onion small.
  4. In a skillet, melt butter or ghee. Add onions and cook until they just begin to turn a golden color-see photo below.
  5. Add beaten eggs, and cook to a soft scramble, set aside.
  6. When rice is done, mix in egg/onion mixture; see photo at top of recipe. Serve it forth-delicious!

Tandoori Chicken

Indian meal

Here you will find information on tandoor clay ovens and a delightful tandoori chicken recipe, which I first made in one of my cooking classes in the early 1980’s.

Tandoor Oven Described

If made authentically in India, this chicken dish (which originated in the Punjabi region of the Indian subcontinent) is cooked in the bell-shaped tandoor clay oven; this oven is also used to make the Indian flatbread naan.  This is a cylindrical clay oven, which sets in the earth and is fired with wood or charcoal; it may also rest above the ground.  1

Where the Tandoor Oven Is Used and Its Origins

The tandoor oven is used for cooking in the following Asian regions: Southern Asia (including India), Central Asia (including some former Soviet republics), and Western Asia (thirteen of the twenty countries-fully or partly located here-are of the Arab world) and the South Caucasus.  2

In India and Pakistan, tandoori cooking became popular, when the Punjabis (from the northern part of the Indian subcontinent) embraced their traditional tandoori cooking on a regional level;  this can be seen, after the 1947 partition, when Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus resettled in such places as Delhi.   Therefore, Indians and Pakistanis traditionally associate the tandoor with the Punjabis.  3

In Azerbaijan, the tandoor oven is called a tandir, while in Armenia, it is known as a tonir, which is underground here.  4

How a Tandoor Oven Works

Burning grasses, charcoal, or wood produces the heat in the traditional tandoor oven.   Smaller electric tandoors, however, are found in some homes, especially in America; larger electrical tandoors are used commercially (see https://www.puritandoors.com/ for purchasing).

These fires within the traditional, cylindrical ovens produce a combination of live fire cooking, radiant heat cooking and hot-air, convection cooking, as well as smoking-caused by the fat dripping on the charcoal or wood.  The temperatures soar to 900 degrees F (480 degrees C); these temperatures are maintained, by the fires left burning for long periods of time.  5

The tandoor design makes the transition between a makeshift earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven.  Earth ovens were communal long ago, being pits dug in the ground with smoldering wood, cooking all the family’s meals within the community.  These earth ovens were eventually lifted out of the ground, and with time, they became masonry-brick or stone-ovens.  Initially in Asia, they, however, transitioned into the tandoor ovens, which being made smaller were used by individual families.  In this way, the tandoor was created, using grasses and wood to generate the heat to cook meat and vegetables within, while flatbreads were slapped directly on the hot clay walls.  6

The heat within a tandoor is generated, by a convection current created inside, as cold air is taken in through a hole at the bottom of the tandoor. As the cold air hits the fire, it warms up, and becomes less dense, circulating up inside the cylinder.  The air previously at the top has cooled down some, and it falls back to the fire.  This convection heat is energy transferred through currents, or in this case air currents.  In turn, a process known as radiation takes place, with the clay of the oven slowly beginning to absorb and emit some of this ambient, circulating, insulated heat.  7

Etymology of the Word Tandoor

According to Wikipedia, the English tandoor comes from Hindi/Urdu tandur, which in turn comes from Persian tanur; all these names mean (clay) oven.  The Dehkhoda Persian Dictionary states that this Persian word was derived from the Akkadian word tinuru, and that this word tinuru consists of the parts tin, or mud, and nuro/nura, meaning fire.  8

Making Your Own Tandoori Oven

There are numerous versions for making your own tandoor oven found on YouTube.  Primitive Life Reborn has a great video on how to make a primitive, mud tandoor-see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zSCNQ0bGolY  A less traditional, but easier design, is given at https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Tandoor-(Clay)-Oven

Background of My Recipe

My original 1980’s receipt included red food coloring, as the spicy hot tandoori chicken in Southern, Central, and Western Asia was reddish in color, due to the abundant spices in it (cayenne pepper, red chili powder, etc.).  Along with the optional food coloring, my milder recipe from the early eighties, included instructions for the barbecuing, broiling, or baking of the poultry, as tandoors were not in abundance in the U.S. back then, as they are today.

In America, “Indian summer” meals are highlighted with barbecues; you may, however, have this prized electric appliance in your home, or even a home-made tandoori oven, thus providing the option of making this receipt the traditional way.  If not, try barbequing, broiling, or in a pinch, baking it-all these instructions are below.

Applied Lesson

A few of the restrictions brought on by Covid-19 may seem to have settled some.  Back in the spring, life appeared to be drastically changed, but now things may no longer appear to be ‘hot as an oven’-and tandoori ovens get up to 900 degrees F (480 degrees C).

A semblance of order seems to have been restored, since the early March outbreak of this virus and all its complications.  Nevertheless, we take nothing for granted, but remain alert.  The word of God instructs us:

“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour: Whom resist steadfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.”    1 Peter 5: 8, 9.  (King James Bible)

To be sober is to be clear-headed, or alert, while vigilance requires circumspection, or being cautious about what we say or do.

We know that our thoughts form the basis of our spoken words and actions; thus, it is imperative that we tend to our thought life carefully.  If we do not, we can unknowingly give Satan access to come into our lives with his destructive ways; this can take place as we let our thoughts play out in words and actions that inadvertently lead to damage.

Through his mercy and grace, our Redeemer Jesus aids us in this, when we ask him to; therefore, we do not mistakenly commit sins of ignorance, or worse yet those of commission, which have consequences of destruction in the natural.

In this way, hell’s heat cannot touch us!

Enjoy my hot-from-the-oven tandoori chicken recipe below.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandoor and https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/tandoori_chicken/
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandoor
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. http://www.renegadekitchen.com/blog/diy-tandoor-oven
  7. Ibid.
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandoor

­

tandoori chicken

Tandoori Chicken  Yields: 6 servings.  Active prep time: 1 hr/  Cooking time: 30 min/  Inactive prep time for marinating: 9 1/2 hr.

6 thigh/leg parts  (Our local Fred Meyer sells seasoned thigh/leg pieces at the meat counter, but you will want to ask for unseasoned ones, for $1.29/lb.  They also carry a pre-packaged Heritage Brand, with 4-5 pieces in a package for $1.09/lb.)

2 tbsp lemon juice, divided

1 1/2 tsp salt, divided

8 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped fine

2 tbsp grated fresh ginger

1 tsp ground cardamom, or 1 1/2 tsp seeds

1/2 tsp garam masala

1/3 tsp ground cumin, or 1/2 tsp seeds

1 tsp cayenne pepper

1 tsp red food coloring, optional

2 c plain, whole milk yogurt  (I prefer Sierra Nevada Grass-fed, Whole Milk Yogurt, as it is thick, rich, and most healthy; another option is plain Greek yogurt.)

  1. cutting five to six gashes in chicken

    If frozen, thaw chicken two days ahead in the refrigerator.

  2. Nine and a half hours before serving, or better yet a day ahead, remove skin from chicken and cut five to six deep gashes in each piece, cutting all the way through the meat (see photo above).
  3. In a small bowl, mix 1 1/2 tbsp of lemon juice and 1 tsp salt.  Rub each piece with this mixture and place in a pan, covering loosely with plastic wrap.  Refrigerate for one and a half hours.
  4. cover thigh/legs with sauce

    With a mortar and pestle, food processor or blender, pulverize: garlic, ginger, cardamom, garam masala, cumin, cayenne pepper, and remaining 1/2 tbsp lemon juice and 1/2 tsp salt.

  5. Mix yogurt, spices, and optional food coloring.  Spoon sauce over the front and back sides of each piece of chicken, covering well; lay in a pan and spoon more sauce on top of these thigh/legs.  Cover loosely with plastic wrap and marinate in refrigerator for eight hours-or overnight.  See above photo.
  6. finished product

    Cook over charcoal, in tandoori oven or BBQ.  May also cook under a broiler for 25-35 minutes, or until done.  A final option is to bake this in 400-degree oven for 30-45 minutes, or until there are no red juices present, when a knife is inserted in center.  See photo.

  7. Enjoy!